Rise of the Superpowers 1945-63 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Rise of the Superpowers 1945-63 Deck (22):
1

US politics and economy

politics:
Democracy
freedom of speech & religion
right to fair trial

economy:
private ownership
business owned privately

2

Containment

US - alarmed with spread of communism

Truman introduced Truman Doctrine - promised aid to countries that resisted communism (Marshall Aid)

Stalin forced countries behind iron curtain to refuse

3

Divided Germany

Superpowers disagreed on Germany's treatment

Stalin - keep it weak

US - rebuild economy

4

Economic reform and division - did all of Germany receive M. aid?

US, BRIT, FRAN. joined their zones - get marshall aid
- currency: Deutsche Mark

Offered to sov. zone - rejected. (stay communist)
-Curency: ostmark

5

Berlin Blockade

Stalin - didn't want Deutsche mark used in W. Berlin - would mean centre of capitalism in midst of communism

JUNE 24 1948 - closed roads + railways from western zones to Berlin. (drive allies out)

W. Allies - stand against Stalin

6

Berlin Airlift

Stalin closed land access, not air corridors

318 days. Huge planes - 10 tonnes supplies arrived every 3 mins.

Berliners- small amounts of food, no fresh fruit/veg. Power cuts, use candles + oil lamps. Never gwve im.

Easter 1949 - all out efforts. 24 hours - 13,000 tonnes food flown - show blockade not working

Blockade lifted 12 May 1949

7

Consequences of Blockade

1. Americans successfully defeated attempts to drive W.Allies from Berlin. Containment worked - main US policy for rest of Cold War.

2. Deepened hostility + distrust between superpowers

3. 1949 - during blockade - USSR successfully tested atomic bomb. Both power to destroy world + nuclear arms race began.

4. Military alliance formed - defend against communism. - Nort Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)

5. 1995 - Sov. U set up alliance - Warsaw Pact w/ Eastern Europe. - Led by USSR

8

Berlin wall

Conditions improved - W. Germany, not E.

East Germans began go leave - harder to build ecomomy

1961 - rulers built wall through centre of Berlin - stop escaping

Steel fence along border

Berlin wall + fence - armed guards + watchtowers + land around full of landmunes

1961 - 1980 200+ tried to cross - killed

During Cold War, symbolised division of Europe

9

Two Germanys

US, brit, french zones - united into Federal Republic of Germany

Sov. zone - German Democratic Republic

10

Initial effects of Cold War

Containment worked - America, Canada, most w. Europe formed NATO to oppose USSR

US + USSR enemies

Division permanent (Germany)

W. Germans loyal to Americans bc of Marshall Aid

Warsaw Pact Alliance between communist countries formed in response

11

Soviet union politics + economy

Politics:
Dictatorship
Citizens a few
Secret police ensured law obeyed

Economy:
Everything owned by state
Communisg
Everyone works for good of state

12

US politics and economy

politics:
Democracy
freedom of speech & religion
right to fair trial

economy:
private ownership
business owned privately

13

Containment

US - alarmed with spread of communism

Truman introduced Truman Doctrine - promised aid to countries that resisted communism (Marshall Aid)

Stalin forced countries behind iron curtain to refuse

14

Divided Germany

Superpowers disagreed on Germany's treatment

Stalin - keep it weak

US - rebuild economy

15

Economic reform and division - did all of Germany receive M. aid?

US, BRIT, FRAN. joined their zones - get marshall aid
- currency: Deutsche Mark

Offered to sov. zone - rejected. (stay communist)
-Curency: ostmark

16

Berlin Blockade

Stalin - didn't want Deutsche mark used in W. Berlin - would mean centre of capitalism in midst of communism

JUNE 24 1948 - closed roads + railways from western zones to Berlin. (drive allies out)

W. Allies - stand against Stalin

17

Berlin Airlift

Stalin closed land access, not air corridors

318 days. Huge planes - 10 tonnes supplies arrived every 3 mins.

Berliners- small amounts of food, no fresh fruit/veg. Power cuts, use candles + oil lamps. Never gwve im.

Easter 1949 - all out efforts. 24 hours - 13,000 tonnes food flown - show blockade not working

Blockade lifted 12 May 1949

18

Consequences of Blockade

1. Americans successfully defeated attempts to drive W.Allies from Berlin. Containment worked - main US policy for rest of Cold War.

2. Deepened hostility + distrust between superpowers

3. 1949 - during blockade - USSR successfully tested atomic bomb. Both power to destroy world + nuclear arms race began.

4. Military alliance formed - defend against communism. - Nort Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)

5. 1995 - Sov. U set up alliance - Warsaw Pact w/ Eastern Europe. - Led by USSR

19

Berlin wall

Conditions improved - W. Germany, not E.

East Germans began go leave - harder to build ecomomy

1961 - rulers built wall through centre of Berlin - stop escaping

Steel fence along border

Berlin wall + fence - armed guards + watchtowers + land around full of landmunes

1961 - 1980 200+ tried to cross - killed

During Cold War, symbolised division of Europe

20

Two Germanys

US, brit, french zones - united into Federal Republic of Germany

Sov. zone - German Democratic Republic

21

Initial effects of Cold War

Containment worked - America, Canada, most w. Europe formed NATO to oppose USSR

US + USSR enemies

Division permanent (Germany)

W. Germans loyal to Americans bc of Marshall Aid

Warsaw Pact Alliance between communist countries formed in response

22

Soviet union politics + economy

Politics:
Dictatorship
Citizens a few
Secret police ensured law obeyed

Economy:
Everything owned by state
Communisg
Everyone works for good of state