Flashcards in Europe after World War 1 Deck (11)
Allies argued over how to treat Germany
French looked for revenge
USA did not want harsh treaty
Britain wanted to weaken Germany but felt some French demands were too extreme
Italians wanted land promised
Main points of treaty
-German army limited to 100,000 men. Not allowed have conscription. Forbidden to have tanks or planes. Navy greatly reduced in size.
-Not permitted to station troops in Rhineland - region that bordered France.
-Germany lost land to France, Poland, Denmark. German colonies in Africa and Asia taken by allies.
-War Guilt Clause blamed Germany for causing war. Had to pay compensation.
-League of Nations set up to keep peace.
Agreement between countries. Contents are called articles.
US programme for peace after World War I
Countries owned by a more powerful country
Paris Peace Conference problems faced
Millions died in war, large numbers of refugees
Unemployment was high, food in short supply. Believed communist revolution would spread from Russia.
Disputes over borders of new countries such as Poland, Romania, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia.
Main ideas of fascism
1) Strong opposition to communism and socialism
2) Extreme nationalism
4) Hostility to democracy
5) The cult of an all-powerful and wise leader
6) A belief in the use of violence to achieve power
How Mussolini made Italy into a dictatorship
1) In Milan, he set up his own political party, Fasci Italiano di Combattimento (the Italian Fighting League)
2) Support rose.
-Criticism of peace treaty
-Weak coalition governments failed to tackle problems.
-Seemed to be only defence against communist revolution.
3) Uniformed followers called squaristi, nicknamed Blackshirts bc of colour of their uniform. Fought street battles with communists.
4) Changed name of party to National Fascist Party. M elected to parliament.
5) March on Kane - Mussolini becomes Prime Minister.
6) Acerbo Law passed in 1923. Said party with most votes gets 2/3 of seats in parliament.
7) 1924 - Mussolini's party wins election
8) Leading socialist, Giacomo Matteotti was murdere. He criticised fascists.
9) 1926 - All other political parties banned.
10) Secret police (OVRA) set up, thousands of political opponents arrested. Titled Il Duce (the leader).
Life in Mussolini's Italy
-Mussolini genuinely popular
-Boys encouraged to be soliders, girls expected to be good mothers
-Boys encouraged to attend after-school youth movements like Balilla
-New motorways - autostrada
-Pontine Marshes drained
-Reached understanding with Catholic church
Lateran Pacts - Independence of Vatican City recognised, Catholicism official religion