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Flashcards in Europe after World War 1 Deck (11)
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Allies argued over how to treat Germany

French looked for revenge
USA did not want harsh treaty
Britain wanted to weaken Germany but felt some French demands were too extreme
Italians wanted land promised


Main points of treaty

-German army limited to 100,000 men. Not allowed have conscription. Forbidden to have tanks or planes. Navy greatly reduced in size.
-Not permitted to station troops in Rhineland - region that bordered France.
-Germany lost land to France, Poland, Denmark. German colonies in Africa and Asia taken by allies.
-War Guilt Clause blamed Germany for causing war. Had to pay compensation.
-League of Nations set up to keep peace.



Agreement between countries. Contents are called articles.


Fourteen Points

US programme for peace after World War I



Countries owned by a more powerful country


Paris Peace Conference problems faced

Millions died in war, large numbers of refugees
Unemployment was high, food in short supply. Believed communist revolution would spread from Russia.
Disputes over borders of new countries such as Poland, Romania, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia.


Main ideas of fascism

1) Strong opposition to communism and socialism

2) Extreme nationalism

3) Racism

4) Hostility to democracy

5) The cult of an all-powerful and wise leader

6) A belief in the use of violence to achieve power


How Mussolini made Italy into a dictatorship

1) In Milan, he set up his own political party, Fasci Italiano di Combattimento (the Italian Fighting League)

2) Support rose.
-Criticism of peace treaty
-Weak coalition governments failed to tackle problems.
-Seemed to be only defence against communist revolution.

3) Uniformed followers called squaristi, nicknamed Blackshirts bc of colour of their uniform. Fought street battles with communists.

4) Changed name of party to National Fascist Party. M elected to parliament.

5) March on Kane - Mussolini becomes Prime Minister.

6) Acerbo Law passed in 1923. Said party with most votes gets 2/3 of seats in parliament.

7) 1924 - Mussolini's party wins election

8) Leading socialist, Giacomo Matteotti was murdere. He criticised fascists.

9) 1926 - All other political parties banned.

10) Secret police (OVRA) set up, thousands of political opponents arrested. Titled Il Duce (the leader).


Life in Mussolini's Italy

Domestic policy
Foreign policy


Domestic policy

-Mussolini genuinely popular
-Propaganda used
-Boys encouraged to be soliders, girls expected to be good mothers
-Boys encouraged to attend after-school youth movements like Balilla
-New motorways - autostrada
-Pontine Marshes drained
-Reached understanding with Catholic church
Lateran Pacts - Independence of Vatican City recognised, Catholicism official religion
-Popularity soared


Foreign policy

-Wanted to make Italy great, respected, feared
-Got Yugoslavia to hand over disputed town
-Took hard line in dispute w/ Greece
-Opponent of Adolf Hitler

-Invaded Abyssinia - Member of League of Nations
-Ignored League demands
-League called on members not to trade w/ Italy
-Turned to Hitler as ally - alliance Rome-Berlin Axis, strengthened w/ Pack of Steel

-Too weak to support Germany
-France about to surrender - Italy declared war
-Hoped to have some success of his own
-Attacked British forces in North Africa
-Invaded Greece
-Italy suffered crushing defeats
-1943 - Allies invaded Italy
-Mussolini removed from power