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Flashcards in Trauma and Venipunture Deck (157)
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31

Positioning considerations during trauma and mobile radiography:

Position stretcher next to upright Bucky.
Enables positioning with minimal pt movement.
Higher ratio grid than portable grids.

32

Marking radiographs for trauma and mobile radiography:

For penetrating trauma, mark entrance and/or exit wounds with a radiopaque marker. Two exposures at right angles to each other will demonstrate depth, as well as the path, of the projectile.

33

Sequencing during trauma and mobile radiography:

Perform all laterals first, working top to bottom.
Perform all AP's next, moving bottom to top.

34

Types of fractures:

dislocation or luxation
subluxation
sprain
fracture (fx)
contusion

35

Dislocation or Luxation:

Displacement of a bone from a joint.
Clinically identified by abnormal shape or alignment of body parts and any movement can be painful.
Must be imaged in two planes 90º ftp each other to demonstrate degree of displacement.

36

For a dislocated joint, a minimum of 2 projections is required to assess for damage and/or possible avulsion fractures even if:

a bone has relocated itself following the injury.

37

Subluxation:

Partial dislocation of a bone from a joint.

38

Nursemaid's elbow:

a traumatic partial dislocation of the radial head of a child, caused by a hard pull on the hand and wrist by an adult. Also called "jerked elbow."

39

Sprain:

A forced wrenching or twisting of a joint, resting in partial rupture or tearing of supporting ligaments without dislocation.

40

A sprain can result in:

severe damage to blood vessels, tendons, ligaments or nerves.

41

Severe swelling and discoloration resulting from hemorrhage of ruptured blood vessels often accompany:

a severe sprain.

42

Radiographs can aid in differentiating sprains from:

fractures.

43

Fracture (fx)

a break in the bone

44

When dealing with a fractured bone, the radiographer must use extreme caution in moving and positioning pt so as not to:

cause further injury or displacement of fracture fragments. NEVER force a limb or body part into position.

45

Contusion:

Bruising of the bone with a possible avulsion fracture.

46

And example of a contusion is:

A hip pointer, a football injury involving a contusion of bone at the iliac crest of pelvis.

47

Apposition:

relationship of the long axes of fracture fragments.

48

Anatomic apposition:

anatomic alignment of ends of fractured bone fragments, wherein the ends of the bone make end-to-end contact.

49

Lack of apposition (distraction):

The ends of fragments pulled apart and not making contact (such as may occur from excessive traction.)

50

Bayonet apposition:

A fracture wherein the fragments overlap and the shafts, but not the fracture ends, make contact.

51

Angulation:

refers to the loss of alignment

52

Apex angulation:

describes the direction or angle of the apex of the fracture, such as medial or lateral apex and it is described in degrees.

53

Varus deformity:

The distal part of the distal fragments angled toward the midline of the body, a lateral apex that points away from the midline.

54

Valgus deformity:

The apex of the fracture, directed toward the midline (medial apex) and the distal fragment away from the midline.

55

Simple fracture:

bone does not break through the skin (closed fracture).

56

Compound fracture:

Bone protrudes through skin (an open fracture).

57

Incomplete fracture:

Fracture does not traverse through entire bone (examples: torus fx, greenstick fx, plastic fx)

58

Complete fractures:

(two pieces) transverse fx, oblique fx, spiral fx.

59

Comminuted fractures:

(two or more fragments) Segmental fx (double type fx), butterfly fx (two fragments) splintered fx (thin, sharp fragments).

60

Impacted fracture:

One fragment driven into another (ends of bones)