Unit 1: Symphony Flashcards Preview

Part 4: The Classical Era > Unit 1: Symphony > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 1: Symphony Deck (10)
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symphony background and origins

-developed 18th century

-built on three-section Italian overture (fast-slow-fast)

-Mannheim composers inserted menuet and trio: four-movement sonata cycle

-sonata form generally in first movement

-composed with four orchestral families


Composers of the Italian overture sometimes referred to as "_," included Alessandro _, Giovanni _, and Domenico _

sinfonias, Scarlatti, Pergolesi, Cimarosa


Mannheim School

-court of Mannheim, Germany, 18th century

-Johann Stamtz, Ignaz Holzbaur, Christian Cannabich, Karl Stamitz

-precision in performance, wide dynamic range, dramatic effects

-developed orchestral crescendo, rocket theme, grand pause

-basso continuo replaced with orchestral parts

-influence development of symphony, Viennese school composers


sonata form

-formal structure

-often in first movement of sonata cycle

-exposition (two or more contrasting themes), development (departure), recapitulation (Return)

-sonata-allegro form



-first main section in sonata form

-two contrasting themes stated

-first theme in tonic key

-second theme(s) in contrasting (generally dominant or relative major)



-second main section in sonata form

-themes from exposition manipulated: fragmentation, sequential treatment, changes to orchestration; modulation, increased harmonic tension

-new themes may be introduced



-third main section in sonata form

-first and second themes restated in tonic key



-from Latin "tail" (Cauda)

-concluding section reaffirming tonic key


monothematic exposition

-in sonata form: second thee is transposed version of first theme

-used by Haydn


symphony characteristic features

-multi-movement orchestral work

-orchestra has four families: strings, winds, brass, percussion

-four contrasting movements

-key: tonic, often subdominant, tonic, tonic

-tempo: lively, slow, fast/moderately fast, fast/lively

-form: sonata,
ternary/theme and var/rondo,
ternary/menuet and trio,
sonata/sonata-rondo/theme and var

-description: may begin w/ introduction
lyrical, expressive character
Beethoven repaced elegant menuet and trio w/ the more dynamic scherzo and trio
lively finale