Unit 2A- Lesioning-contralateral Connection Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2A- Lesioning-contralateral Connection Deck (29):
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Lesioning

Tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a natural or deliberate destruction of brain tissue.

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EEG or electroencephalogram

An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brains surface. IT EXAMINES BRAIN WAVES.

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CAT, computed tomography, or CT scan

A sophisticated x-Ray that takes pictures of the brain from various different angles and combines them into one 3D image.

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PET or positron emission tomography

A visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task. It examines the brain activity by using radioactive glucose (because it lights up)

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MRI or magnetic resonance imaging

A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain. LOOKS AT DENSITY OF TISSUE AND THE MATTER OF THE BRAIN

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Functional MRI

Looks at brain activity and structure by following the blood flow of our brain. Does this through magnetism because out brain contains iron, it works

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Brainstem or hindbrain

The oldest part and central core of he brain. At the top of the spinal cord. It is the first structure of the brain to develop during pregnancy. All other animals also have this portion. Contains the pons, cerebellum, and medulla. Regulates basic human functions.

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Medulla or medulla oblongata

The base of the brain stem; controls heartbeat and breathing. Controls respiration, blood pressure, vomiting, reflex arc, and heartbeat.

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Reticular formation

Also known as the reticular activating system. A nerve network in the brainstem controls arousal, swallowing, urination, movement of the face and tongue.

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Pons

Region of the brain that ACTS AS A RELAY STATION BETWEEN THE CEREBELLUM AND THE CEREBRUM. bridge between hindbrain and the rest if the brain. It helps with posture and bladder formation.

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Cerebellum

Also called the little brain. Located at the rear of the brainstem. Helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance. Also, muscle memory, but more so, the ability to write.

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Midbrain

Located just above the medulla and pons and contains basic vision and hearing functions; it also is the input center for muscle movement. Helps coordinate movements with sensory information. Very small in humans and uses RAS to function.

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Forebrain

Anterior of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and the cerebral hemispheres. It is the main control center for sensory and associative information processing, visceral functions and voluntary motor functions. CONTROLS REASON, EMOTION, AND THOUGHT.

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Thalamus

Receives information from all senses EXCEPT SMELL and routes it to the higher brain regions that deal with seeing, hearing, tasting, and touching. AKA SENSORY SWITCH BOARD.

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Hypothalamus

A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities(eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion.

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Limbic system

A doughnut shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with EMOTIONS such as fear and aggression and DRIVES such as those for food and sex and memory. Includes the amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus.

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Hippocampus

Deals with new memories and learning. It processes new memories

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Amygdala

Two almond shaped neural clusters(part of limbic system) that influence fear and aggression.

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Septum

Produces feelings of happiness; releases dopamine. It functions to give us feelings of anger, suppression, and pleasure. Makes us feel good. Part of limbic system. PLEASURE CENTER OF THE BRAIN.

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Cerebral cortex

Made of up four lobes on each side-eight total. It is what makes us human and is densely packed with neural cells or neurons and glial cells. Fissures are little wrinkles in the brain. More wrinkles=more surface area. The body's ultimate information processor.

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Glial cells

Cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons. They are the "parent" of all neurons.

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Frontal lobe

Just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements. Responsible for abstract thought, emotional control, contains speech areas-production of speech, deals with voluntary movement because it deals with the motor cortex.

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Motor cortex

Allows us to move voluntarily. Located at the back of the frontal lobe. Where nerve cells are engaged in planning and directing the actions of muscles and glands that are under conscious control.

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Parietal lobe

Integrates sensory information from our various senses.

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Sensory cortex

Registers and processes body sensations. Visiospacial processing: ability to see objects in space. Allows people to feel temperature.

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Temporal lobe

Auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite end. Lies next to the temple. Deals with sound/auditory information. Also deals with smell an speech. Processes stimuli with spaces and scenes.

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Occipital lobe

Includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field. Deals with our ability to see. Takes info from retina. Contralateral connection.

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Ipsilateral connection

Deals with the same side of the body.

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Contralateral connection

Occurring on or affected a part on the opposite side of the body.