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Flashcards in Unit 4 Quiz Deck (32)
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-Cultural and intellectual movement to revive classical learning that focused on human achievements rather than the divine
-Latin and Greek literary and historical texts
-Expressed in scholarship, art, music, architecture, etc.
-Supported by wealthy patrons and Renaissance popes



-Most humanist scholars were Christian
-Erasmus of Rotterdam
--> New Latin and Greek translations of New Testament
--> Encouraged Church to return to Gospel values
-Invention of the printing press= 1440 by Johannes Gutenberg
-Mechanically reproduced books
-Available to more people
-Want to revive classical writing



-Master artists celebrated beauty of God's creation, esp. in humanity
-Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Botticelli, Raphael, Donatello
-Ex: Sistine Chapel, Michelangelo's Pieta, Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper



-Palestrina= Well-known composer who greatly contributed to liturgical music



-Many grand Renaissance art found in churches
-Ex: St. Peter's Basilica, Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore (Duomo)



-The means by which the Church takes away the punishment that a person would face in Purgatory
-Originally a way of doing good as penance (Make up for sins)
-Example: Going on a pilgrimage


Indulgences Before and After

-A way to support Christian living
-Earned through good works and prayer

-Became "magic antidote for sin" (all sins just disappear)
-Now bought and sold


Martin Luther

-German priest, monk, and scholar
-October 31st, 1517 posted Ninety Five Theses to church in Wittenberg
-Concerned about selling of indulgences and Sacraments
-List of problems and reforms he wanted in the Church
-Hoped to spark conversation with theologians
-Addressed to Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz


95 Theses

-Sola Scriptura: Scripture alone transmits Revelation
-Sola Fide: Humanity is justified through faith alone
-Sola Gratia: Only grace; Salvation only through God's grace



-Sola Scriptura
-Sola Fide
-Sola Gratia
-Priesthood of all believers
-2 Sacraments: Baptism and Eucharist



-Scripture and Tradition
-Faith and Good works
-Salvation as cooperation
-Ministerial priesthood
-7 Sacraments


Luther's Followers

-Threat to the Church and Civil stability


Pope Leo's X response to Luther

-Slow at first
-Dec. 1520- Sent Papal Bull ordering him to recant
-Excommunicated in Jan 1521
-Banished from Germany by HRE Charles V


Luther's response to Pope Leo X

-Luther fled to a friend's Duke Frederick of Saxony and gained followers
-Completed German translation of the Bible--> vernacular--> why is that bad? (Luther could pick bible verses)
-1525 came out of exile
-1530: Official start of Lutheranism
-Entrusted princes with organization of churches and worship--> disunified?


Consequences of the 95 Theses

-Did not intend to break from the Church of Rome
-Others see it as an open door for change
-Church sees as potentially dangerous but doesn't recognize extent of damage until it's too late
-Instead it began upheaval and the Protestant Reformation



-Branch or sect of protestantism



-Branched off of Lutheranism
-Moves To Geneva Switzerland
-formed model theocracy bcuz political & moral problems
-caused problems turned people against each other
-Predestination: God decided if you will go to Heaven or Hell (came from sola fide but is against it)



-King Henry VIII created so he could divorce his wife because he wasn't getting a son
-couldn't get a divorce (Pope wouldn't do it) formed off of Catholicism


Council of Trent

-Clergy and Laity both called to seek effective response to Luther & reformers
-Called by Pope Paul III December 1545
-Trent: Southern Alps of Italy
-Years of interruption broke up council (on and off)
-Reconvened by Pope Pius IV January 1562


What Council of Trent did

-Clarified and defined church doctrine that hadn't been discussed
-Outlined reforms for pastoral care


Goals of the Council of Trent

-Guide the laity
-Reform Church hierarchy
-Counter Protestantism


On the Creed

-Said that there was a need for a creed; affirmed the Nicene Creed
-It listed the beliefs so the people would know exactly what the faith was about
-Left no room for wrong interpretation of doctrine


On Seminaries

-Priests need to be well-educated to do their job, so seminaries are need to train the clergy
-Responds to the Protestants thinking everyone was a priest. The emphasis on a well educated priest shows that not everyone can be a priest
-There are seminaries in Catholic schools and colleges in America today


On the Priesthood

-Holy Orders is necessary to become a priest (affects the soul)
-Requirements: Priest upheld celibacy
-Response to Lutheran belief that everyone is a priest


On Marriage

-To be married in the eyes of the Church, a priest must marry you, and you have two witnesses
-It was needed because people were going about marriage the wrong way; needed to set the standard


On Justification

-Freed and sanctified because of grace which we got at baptism
-Needed as a reaction to Sola Gratia and Sola Fide, from the Lutheran reform
-Needed to do good things, faith makes it possible


On Scripture

-Confirmed deuterocanonical books part of canon plus the vulgate was affirmed as the authoritative text of scripture
-Response to Luther declaring them part of the Apocrypha, writings about Jesus/ Christian message not accepted as part of canon
-Ex of books not in protestant: Tobit, Maccabee 1, Maccabee 2


On the Mass

-Council affirmed that mass is truly a sacrifice, because it makes present the sacrifice of the cross
-Mass represents Christ's sacrifice in response to people questioning need for mass


On the Eucharist

-Affirmed the doctrine of Transubstantiation & the true presence of Christ in the Eucharist
-Not just bread, not just a symbol


On Original Sin

-Doctrine of Original Sin was affirmed
-Baptism removes original sin, but we still are inclined to sin
-Combats the Albigensian's saying that we are made evil