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Five Pillars of Faith

-Testimony of Faith: No god but Allah, Muhammad is messenger of Allah
-Giving Zakat: Set aside things for those in need
-Prayer: 5 times a day and certain times
-Fasting: During Ramadan, do not eat pork
-Pilgrimage (Hajj): Travel to Mecca once during lifetime



-Mohammad had a prophetic call when angel Gabriel visited him brought him revelations from god (Allah)
-Koran (Qu'ran) = Book of these revelations
-Islam= means"Submission"


Similarities between Christianity and Islam

-Monotheistic: Belief in one God
-Same patriarchs- Abraham, Isaac, Jacob
-The resurrection of the dead
-The centrality of the religious community
-Church: Christian & umma: Islam
-Hold Mary in high regard (mentioned more in the Qu'ran than in the Bible)


History of Islam

-Mohammad returned to Mecca where he preached and brought many to the faith
-Persecution by Meccan authorities--> flight to Medina where they established religious and political authority, raised an army to raid Meccan caravans


Death of Mohammad

-632: Death of Mohammad, who had unified the entire Arabian Peninsula religiously and military
-Army grew and spread Islamic faith east and west
-Some Christian cities fell to Muslim control
-Conquered Spain around 711


Battle of Tours

-Byzantine Emperor Leo Isaurian stopped Eastern expansion
-Charles Martel (King of the Franks) defeated Muslim invaders and halted further growth in Europe
-Christian identity preserved in parts of Europe


Why did Islam successfully spread?

-Did not force conquered civilizations to convert
-Gave Christians and Jews special protections as "People of the Book" (All followed the Old Testament)
-Heavy taxes to non-muslims and exclusion from government jobs and other privileges- incentives to convert
-Offered order and stability in non-Christian areas of warfare


Consequences to Church in 8th and 9th Century

-Mediterranean region was under Muslim control
-Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria (3 ancient patriarchs) had fallen and lost their influence
-Center of secular power shifted from Rome to the Franks
-Constantinople never regained its glory
-Constant threat of a new power to overtake the people



-Society was ordered around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service and protections


Problems w/ Church after Spread of Islam

-Islam is posing a threat to the Church
-Lombards= Germanic tribe expanding into Northern Italy
-Byzantine emperor n Constantinople was less effective protecting Rome
-** (good)Church seeks help from the Franks (Germanic tribe in Gaul, modern-day France)
-Charles Martel sees no advantage in alliance w/ Pope
-**(good)Successor Pepin agrees to ally w/ papacy


Donation of Pepin

-King Pepin's designation of the central part of Italy to be governed by the Pope--> Papal States
-Pepin believed an alliance would legitimize his rule
-Pope Boniface crowned Pepin ruler
-Pepin made the pope a secular ruler--> became the head of a state like other European rulers


St. Boniface

-Bishop and missionary
-Called the Apostle to Germany- thought to have converted the Germans
-Chopped down a sacred tree dedicated to Thor- was not struck dead after this happened, so the people believed in God
-Crowned Pepin the Short, King of the Franks in 751
-Church's current struggle--> to promote Christian worldview
-Jesus Christ is not just one god among many but the second Person of the Blessed Trinity, the one true God.


Charlemagne (Charles the Great)

-786: Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor after Pepin's death
-the Frankish kings, not the emperors in Constantinople, are power in Europe
-800: Crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor
-Signaling the unity of Christianity and politics, the oneness of the Church and society in Christendom


Entanglements of Church and State

-Committed to protecting the Church and making sure Church law and practices were enforced throughout his empire
-Charlemagne= "Protector of the Papacy"
-High emphasis on learning
-Appointed educated men to gov. positions (Monks, bishops, priests)
-Started schools
-Ambitious ruler and strong military leader
-Oversee the appointment of Church leaders, just as emperor in the Eastern Church would do
-Pope Leo III increasingly dependent and indebted to him



-Unified blending of one religion and secular power
-Cathedral is center of activity of a town
-Christianity and all aspects of life intertwined
-Christian worldview marked seasons and cycles of people's lives


Lay Investiture

-The appointing of bishops by Feudal lords
-causes problems because they can be unqualified, are not knowledgable about the Church
-if this was still going on today, the Church would be corrupt



-The act of selling or buying Church offices or roles
-Problem because people may not be qualified
-problems arose because people thought they could buy their way into heaven



- state of abstaining from marriage and sexual relations voluntary, usually for religious regions
-different from being chaste (person can be married and chaste, and you can be both chaste and celibate)
-Problem since men would pass on their stuff, which is part of their church.


Two Types of Reform

-Reforms used Gospel message to constantly call Christians back to fidelity to message of Jesus
1. Reform of monasticism
2. Reform of Pope Gregory VII


Reform of Monasticism

-Abbots and Bishops answering to local secular power made committing to the Gospel and Church's mission difficult
-909: Duke William of Aquitaine and monk Berno instituted reforms to monastic life
-Gave land in Cluny, France to Berno to establish monastery ---> placed authority under the Pope with monks selecting their own abbott


Cluniac Reforms

-Brought about a renewal of Benedictine ( rule of Saint Benedict) spirit
-Poverty, Chastity, Obedience, Ora et Labora (Pray and work)
-Contributed to Medieval art
-Change in moral life of clergy
-Caring for the poor
-New ways to pray--> Liturgy of the Hours (Praying at certain times during the day, 5 times a day)


Gregorian Reforms

-Pope Gregory VII initiated many reforms to help Church authority run smoothly
-Revitalize and revolutionize Church organization
-Movement to remove state interference with Church affairs--> paved the way for separation of Church and State
-Fiercely attacked simony and lay investiture--> stressed mora integrity and independence of the clergy
-Stressed importance of celibacy--> return to original purity
-Papal primacy: Pope as Bishop of Rome is head following Peter--> received commission of Christ to lead the Church


Reforming the Papacy

-1057: Pope Nicholas II restricted papal electorate to cardinals (bishops appointed by Pope) instead of all bishops
-Pope Gregory VII developed the conclave= private assembly of cardinals in order to elect a Pope


Tensions between Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV

-Pope Gregory VII: Church wanted to be independent
-Henry IV: Did not like the Popes ruling, tries to get rid of him
-Greg: excommunicated Henry, told people not to listen to him
-Henry: asks for forgiveness because nervous
-Henry: Performs penance but does not act upon his penance
-Greg: Excommunicates Henry again
-Henry: Takes Rome and got rid of Gregory as Pope
-Greg: Dies in exile


Concordat of Worms

-Controversy over lay investiture is resolved in Worms, Germany
-Emperor agreed that rulers no longer have authority to appoint bishops
-all bishops elected and consecrated by Church authority


Christology East vs. West

-Holy Trinity= Three persons in one God
-Hypostatic union: Jesus is fully human and fully divine
-Mary is "theotokos" (God bearer)
-Arianism: Christ is created being who was superior to humans bu inferior to God
-Nestorianism: Mary gave birth to human Jesus but not divine
-Splits Jesus into 2 persons


Filioque (And from the Son) East vs. West

-Holy Spirit descended from the father and from the Son
-Added to the Nicene Creed in the 6th Century
-Holy Spirit descended fromt he Father and through the Son
-Son is viewed as chanel/ messenger


Who's the head of the Church East vs. West

-Bishop of Rome (Pope) first because of Apostolic Succession
-Authority to call ecumenical councils= group of bishops deciding together
-Patriarchs should be given more power and authority in the Church