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0

Why were Christians Persecuted

-Threat to Jewish Faith (Had separate religious identity)
-Threat to the Roman Empire:
-Refused to worship the Emperor (treason) and Roman gods
-Refused to offer sacrifices to these gods

1

Christian Persecution

-Became scapegoats for many situations including the Great Fire and natural disasters
-Property confiscated from them (sacred books, churches)
-Forced into hard labor
-Killing displayed in public
-Forced to practice their faith in secret

2

Martyrs for the Faith

-Martyrdom= Witness to the saving message of Christ through the sacrifice of a person's life
-People who die for a cause (faith) they believe in
-Ex:Saints Peter, Paul, Felicity, Perpetua, Irenaeus

3

Early Christian Worship

-Christian communities gathered in homes to avoid attention
-Greek word for Church=ekklesia--> German/ Old English kirche
-Often met in secret and wore signs like Chi-Rho to identify themselves as Christian to other followers

4

Liturgy of the Word

-Reading from the Old Testament
-Letters from Paul or another Apostle
-Talk given by a presider- reminding people to act on what they have heard
-Offer prayers for each other and exchange peace

5

Liturgy of the Eucharist

-Presider takes the bread and wine and offers praise/glory and gives thanks

6

Early Christianity before the Edict of Milan (Before 313 AD)

-Authority: Apostles, Bishops, Presbyters (Priests),Deacons
-Structure: In homes, No structure, Limited organization
-Worship: Worshipped in secret in houses

7

Christianity after the Edict of Milan (After 313 AD)

Authority: Pope, More Bishops
Structure:
-Hierarchy of Pope, bishop, presbyters, and deacons (ordained) that have specialized roles
-East/ West split
-Large gatherings in Churches
-Became much more organized on paper with a hierarchy
-Worship: Could worship publicly, not in secret

8

Apologists

-One who speaks or writes in defense of the Church
-Church moves from what (what is Jesus Christ) to why (Why people want to follow him, what is Christianity)

9

St. Ignatius of Antioch

-Second bishop of Antioch in 69 AD
-Refused to renounce Christian faith and was taken to Rome to be executed
-Wrote letters of encouragement and instruction to Christians
-Was ready to give up his life to be with God

10

St. Justin Martyr

-Gentile who converted to Christianity
-Philosopher who wrote many documents (Apology 1, Apology 2, Dialogue)
-Martyred for refusing to offer sacrifices to pagan gods

11

St. Iranaeus

-Born in Asia Minor and studied in Rome
-Became a bishop in Lyons
-Argued against heresies that were spreading
-Gnosticism: knowledge would earn salvation, but only a few would receive that mysterious knowledge
-Denied the human nature of Christ
-Helped settle spiritual controversies

12

Reasons for Incarnation

-Save us
-Know Gods love
-Imitate him
-Share Jesus' divine nature

13

Episcopate (Bishop)

-Highest authority in the Church
-This is the highest form of the Priesthood. They have the grace to guide, shepherd and sanctify the Church

14

Presbyterate (Priest)

-2nd highest authority in the Church
-Serve the Bishop by proclaiming the word and offering sacrifices. They are able to celebrate the mysteries of the Sacraments.

15

Diaconate (Deacon)

-3rd highest authority in the Church
-serve the Bishop by aiding in worship, charity, and pastoral preaching... (baptisms, funerals, and marriage). Deacons may not consecrate the bread and wine at Mass

16

Legalizing Christianity

-Emperor Constantine took over in 306 AD
-Had a dream to put Chi-Rho on his shield in battle and he would win
-Won battle and was named emperor
-Edict of Milan--> 313 AD, religious tolerance in the Roman Empire which legalized Christianity

17

Father of the Church vs. Doctor of the Church

Fathers of the Church
-Early teachers whose writing extended the Tradition of the Apostles and who continue to be important of the Church's teachings
Doctors of the Church
-Title officially bestowed by the Church on those saints who are highly esteemed for their theological writings, as well as their personal holiness

18

Early Church Father Characteristics

-Recognized for maintaining theological positions within accepted doctrinal boundaries
-Lived holy lives
-The writings and teachings have been approved by the Church and shaped her teachings
-Work on Sacred Scripture
-Clarified Church doctrine
-Strengthened the papacy

19

Saint Athanasius

-Jesus is the same substance as the Father
-argued Arianism<--- Jesus is not divine

20

St. Jerome

-Translated the Bible into the Vulgate (Hebrew and Greek---> Latin)

21

St. Leo the Great

-Increased the authority of the Church
-claimed authority was given by Christ and should oversee Church (ecclesial--> the whole church) matters

22

324 AD (Constantine and Licinius

-Constantine defeats Licinius to become the sole emperor
-Moved government from Rome to Constantinople
-Now two major centers of the empire (East and West)
-Church develops different styles of worship, Sacraments, church architecture

23

Differences between West and East Churches

East
-Large worship spaces with domes (representing the Heavens)
-Eucharistic liturgy focused on God's Kingdom
-Altar separated by a wall
West
-Long buildings with semicircular structure on end
-Christ sacrifice emphasized with the altar as focal point

24

Ecumenical Councils

-Gathering of the Church's bishops from around the world convened by the Pope to address pressing issues in the Church
-1st: Council of Nicaea
-Council of Jerusalem is not an ecumenical council because no pope yet but still important (Gentiles should or should not follow Jewish laws to become Christian was solved)

25

Council of Nicaea

-Convened by the Pope because Arianism was threatening the dogma that Christ is divine
-Started the creation of the Nicene Creed (was not finished)
-Cleared up the fact that Christ is consubstantial with God
-325 AD

26

Council of Constantinople

-381 AD
-Finished addressing the false beliefs of the Church
-Defended the Church against Arianism and protected the belief of Christ's divinity
-Finished the Nicene Creed, which is still used currently in the Church

27

Council of Ephesus

-431 AD
-To combat nestorianism (Mary is the mother of human Jesus, not divine one
-Stated Mary is theotokus/ virgin
-Confirmed the role of Mary in the Church

28

Council of Chalcedon

-451 AD
-A decision needed to be made on who had more power, the Bishop of Rome or Bishop of Constantinople
-Decided The Bishop of Rome has authority over the patriarch of Constantinople
-This was the cause of Pope Leo wanting to elevate power in Constantinople, leading to the Great Schism (Split of the East and West Church)

29

Patriarch

-"Father" or "head" of a clan or tribe
-refers to the Pope and some bishops in the Church

30

Early Church Patriarchs

-1. Bishop of Rome (Church in the West)
-2. Bishops of Alexandria (Egypt and Palestine)
-3. Bishop of Antioch (Syria, Asia Minor, Greece, & remainder of the Church in the East)
-Council of Constantinople: Bishop of Constantinople added as patriarch
-Council of Chalcedon: Added Jerusalem (Holy land to Christians because Jesus crucified there) into the patriarchs

31

Collapse of the Roman Empire

-Eastern Roman Empire continued to grow with center at Constantinople
-Western Empire in period of decline---> ineffective or corrupt emperors
-Growth and expansion made empire harder to govern and protect
-Rome was attacked in 410 AD, city fell in 455 AD, and barbarian chief took over in 476 AD (Official date of the fall of the Roman Empire)

32

Fall of Rome leads to growth in the Byzantine Empire

-Expansion into North Africa, Italy, Spain
-Building of churches
-Reformed and codified (put into writing) Roman law
-Tension increased between Pope and patriarch

33

Pope Leo the Great

-Also known as St.Leo the Great
-Intelligent, tough, courageous leader who was able to bring about peace and stability to the Church in the West
-Church provided safety and security- reached out to the needs of the citizens
-Charitable work (ex today: schools, food distribution)