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Emergence of groups reacting to whats going on

-Renounce property
-Travel the world to preach
-Primary mission: evangelization of the world through words and actions


Difference between Monasticism & Mendicants

-Contemplatives (thinking introvert) vs. Active Contemplatives (acting extrovert)
- Monasticism:
-Act of dwelling alone
-little to no interaction w/ the world
-Devote themselves for prayer and sacrifice for the sanctification of the world
-traveling around
-More time spent serving the community through various ministeries


Similarities between Mendicants and Monasticism

-Worship God
-Community prayer
-Communal meals
-labor/ work
-Private prayer
-Religious vows
-heart and life is prayer and service to make the Church holier
-Have early Christian goals


3 Groups

-Franciscans (Friars minor)
-Poor Clares (Poor ladies of assisi
-Dominicans (Order of preachers)


Saint Francis (Founding of Franciscans)

-Born into wealth
-Fought in small military battles
-Encountered a leper whom he associated with crucified christ
-Heard Christ speak in San Damiano Chapel ('repair my house')
- Repaired San Damiano then fixed the people of the Church


Saint Francis after "Repair my house" (Founding of Franciscans)

-Took up life of complete poverty
-Committed to strengthening the Church (spread the Good News)
-Eventually people followed
-Order approved by Pope Innocent III in 1209 (First mendicant group)



-Living out the gospel is the reason for being
-model life after christ--> living in poverty in imitation o Jesus and the apostles
-Renounce all property individually and communally
-rely on support from their work an community



-How you practice or live out your faith



-Service (job or work) for others caused by God in the Church


Early Franciscans

-Positioned in towns among the people (especially poor)
-Pulpit, confessional, service for the sick and weak, foreign missions, peace crusades
-Powerful voice for renewal in the medieval church


Franciscans Now

-Chaplains in hospitals and nursing homes
-Educators/ professors Kindergarden through College
-Spiritual guidance
-Parish ministry
-Homeless outreach
-Counseling addiction


3 Orders of Franciscans

-Order of Friars Minor
-Poor Clare Nuns
-Secular Franciscan Order (Lay people)


Founding of the Poor Clares

-St. Clare: Italian Noblewomen
-Inspired by Francis to live a life for Jesus
-Gave up all she had, and a group of women followed her
-Created First Rule for Women


The Poor Clares Then

-Founded in 1212 in Assisi
-Religious community of cloistered nuns
-Dedicated to penance: Great sacrifices made through prayer
-Contemplative life of prayer and joy based on Franciscan tradition of simplicity and poverty


Poor Clares Today

-Over 20,000 sisters in over 70 countries
-Small communities 4-13 nuns
--> Family is an important value
-Primary ministry (Mission): Life of prayer for the needs of the world


Founding of the Dominicans

-Founder by Saint Dominic de Guzman
-Young priest in France who encountered a heretical group (group who believes in heresies)
-Created an order to live monastic ideals outside monastery
-Wanted well-educated clergy

-Reason through faith
-Teach others
-Know why heresies are wrong



The Dominicans--> "Black Friars"
-Founded 1215 as The Order of Preachers
-Emerged to combat heresies
-Primarily teaching and preaching order


Dominicans Then

-Emphasized theological study--> Educated friars are of the greatest service to the Church
-Could proclaim truth (veritas) of the Gospels & wisdom of Church's Tradition
-Dominican houses founded in university towns


Dominicans Now

-Theologians and scholars
-Educators in colleges and high schools
-Traveling preachers
-Pastors (Head of parish)
-Chaplains (Priests in hospitals, schools, police stations)
-Campus ministers


Romanesque Architecture

-Massive pillars
-Rounded arches
-Small windows: Not as much natural light
-Square top entrances
-Thick, heavy walls
-Designed in a cross shape (cruciform)


Gothic Cathedrals

-Thin walls
-rid-vaulted ceilings
-Tall windows
-concrete arches (Buttresses)
-Stained glass
-Steeps roves
-Very ornate (decorated)


Why were Cathedrals built?

-Pride in religion after Edict of Milan
-Many people had to go to mass in large cities due to urbanization, so they had to fit everyone (Wanted to worship through their structures)


Education in the Early Middle Ages

-Education was provided by monastery schools (They have the books)
-Taught by monks or nuns
-Primary focus was training the clergy
-Children of nobles and villages went (wanted to be literate)


12th Century Educations

-Universities grew out of the early schools
-Teachers and students group together to study certain topics
- Studied Liberal arts and Sciences
-Universitas formed= Masters had to earn a license & students had to earn degrees


Liberal Arts and Sciences

Liberal Arts: Astronomy, music, grammar, logic, math, geometry
Sciences: Theology, law, medicine


The Begining of Universities

-Students (male only) could enter at 14
-Liberal arts took 6 years
-Further study in medicine, law, or theology could take an additional 12 years--> Master or Doctoral degree
-Major universities sprang up in Paris, Oxford, Cambridge, Salamanca, etc. all across Europe
-University of Bologna--> First university in 1088



-Method of thinking, teaching, and writing in medieval universities
-Emphasized dialog to come to a truth through reasoned arguments
-Centered on knowledge about God
-Faith and reason work off of each other


Whats going on in the Church before the Mendicants?

-Corruption in the Church
-Crusades led to thirst for wealth, power, glory over all else
-Use of Mercenaries: Foreign soldiers payed to fight in wars



-Heretical group in France
-Pose new threat to the Church
-Believed all creation is evil (even humans)
-Anti-sacerdotal: Opposed the priesthood
-Rejected Eurcharist
-Combatted with Lateran Council IV


Lateran Council IV

-Instated by Pope Innocent III to combat the Albigensians
-Established 70 Cannon laws
-Ex: Seal of Confession, enforcement of celibacy, no simony, no lay investiture