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Flashcards in USMLE Bacteria Deck (65):
1

Glycocalyx - use?

Adherence onto foreign surfaces, loosely organized polysaccharides

2

Microbes that don't stain well?

Treponema (too thin)
Mycobacteria (high lipid content in cell wall)
Mycoplasma (no cell wall)
Legionella (IC)
Rickettsia (IC)
Chlamydia (IC)
"These Microbes May Lack Real Colour"

3

Giemsa stain

Chlamydia (certain)
Borrelia (bugs)
Rickettsia (really)
Trypanosomes (try my)
Plasmodium (patience)

4

Obligate intracellular microbes

Really CHilly and COld
Rickettsia
Chlamydia
Coxiella

5

Facultative intracellular microbes

FRANCIS "NEISS"LY invited LISTER to the LEGION in YERSINIA for MY SALMON and BRUCELL sprouts

Salmonella
Neisseria
Brucella
Mycobacterium
Listeria
Francisella
Legionella
Yersinia

Some Nasty Bugs May Live FacultativeLY

6

Urease-positive organisms

yoUR SAPpy PRO boNO KLEB is an EPIc HPoCRYPT.

Cryptococcus
H. pylori
Proteus
Ureaplasma
Nocardia
Klebsiella
Saprophyticus
S. Epidermis

CHuck Norris hates PUNKSS

7

Encapsulated organisms

SHiNE SKiS

Strep Pneumo
Haemophilus Influenza B
Neisseria
E. Coli

Salmonella
Klebsiella (i)
Strep (Group B)

8

Catalase positive organisms

Cat positively said "NO, PSEUDOwoodo, ASPER CANDIDlE LISTed a SERRATed STAPH

Nocardia
Pseudomonas
Aspergillus
Candida
E Coli
Listeria
Serratia
Staph

9

High neutrophil content with intracellular organisms. Microbe?

N. gonorrhea

10

If everyone was vaccinated with recombinant HbsAg, what disease would be eliminated?

Delta agent infection

11

What diseases are caused by Staph A exotoxin?

Scalded skin syndrome
Toxic shock syndrome
Gastroenteritis

12

Febrile maculopapular rash that starts on the face and spreads to the trunk and extremities with postauricular LAD points towards?

Rubella, caused by togavirus

13

What do you use to treat a C Diff infection?

Oral metronidazole, vancomycin, fidaxomicin

14

What do you use to prophylax vs C Diff?

Fidaxomicin

15

What do you use to treat toxoplasmosis?

Pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine

16

Person returns from trip with many white spots on tanned skin...dx and pathologic agent?

Pityriasis versicolor from malassezia furfur

17

What predisposes a person to a cholera infection?

Achlorhydria (from, for e.g., omeprazole tx, b/c cholera is acid sensitive)

18

What does H.Flu need to grow in media?

Chocolate agar with NAD (V) and X (hematin)

19

Hx of viral esophagitis and pneumocystis pneumonia = ?

HIV

20

CNS infection in HIV patient is most likely caused by?

Cryptococcus neoformans

21

How do you dx a cryptococcus neoformans brain infection?

Positive latex agglutination of CSF

22

Headache, retro-orbital pain, high-grade fever, joint and muscle pains w/ epistaxis. Dx?

Dengue fever

23

What has a similar transmission to dengue fever?

Chikungunya fever

24

Spherules that contain endospores with fever, mild tachy, lung auscultation. Dx and region?

C. immitis in Arizona

25

The presence of ____ would prevent death from Diptheria infection?

IgG against circulating proteins

26

What virus replicates by generating several functional viral proteins from a single, large, virally coded precursor polypeptide?

Echovirus

27

What part of a RNA virus determines its ability to infect humans?

Surface glycoprotein

28

What is the main source of rabies in the USA?

Bats

29

Restlessness, agitation, dysphagia progressing to coma within weeks of exploring a bat cave = suspect?

Rabies

30

What kind of vaccine is used for rabies?

Various inactivated rhabdovirus strains

31

Where is the primary bodily site for cryptococcus neoformans and where is it found?

Lungs; soil & pigeon droppings

32

Gram positive rod with tumbling motility at room temperature. Microbe?

Listeria

33

Infection with what microbe results in the formation of cold agglutinins?

Mycoplasma pneumoniae
(EBV, too)

34

What is the major virulence factor for S. pneumo?

Polysaccharide capsule

35

Ab against Polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (PRP) protects against what microbe?

H. influenzae type B

36

What prevents infection with oral inoculation with C. diff?

Intestinal biomass prevents overgrowth of C Diff.

37

What diseases do you think of from the Northeast USA?

Babesiosis, Lyme disease, both by Ixodes tick

38

Immunosuppressed patient with fever, chills, multiple skin patches with ulcerated appearance, and occasional necrotic center. Dx and microbe?

Ecthyma gangrenosum, pseudomonas

39

What is the essential pathogenic mechanism for Shigella?

Mucosal invasion (NOT SHIGA TOXIN)

40

What do you use to prevent perinatal transmission of HIV?

Viral enzyme inhibitor drug (zidovudine, (ZDV, AZT))

41

What is the cause of positive monospot with heterophile antibody-negative mononucleosis-like syndrome?

CMV

42

Sputum cultures grow budding yeast that form germ tubes at 37C. Dx?

Candida albicans

43

What might you see after impetigo infection?

Glomerulonephritis (more common than rheumatic fever!)

44

What kind of vaccine is the vaccine for rubella?

In the MMR, live attenuated vaccine

45

What viruses are capable of genetic shifts through reassortment?

Rotaviruses, orthomyxoviruses.

46

What is the most common cause of aseptic meningitis?

Enterovirus (fecal oral route transmission)

47

Patient from central/South America presents with achalasia. Suspect?

Trypanosoma cruzi

48

Spherule filled with endospores - suspect?

Coccidioidomycosis

49

How do you prophylax vs M. avium?

Azithromycin

50

CD4 count > 50 prophylaxis?

TMP-SMX vs pneumocystis pneumonia and toxoplasmosis

51

CD4 count

Azithro/clarithromycin vs M. avium complex

52

Prevention of postsurgical infxn due to S. aureus?

Cefazolin

53

Exposure to meningococcal infection prophylaxis?

Ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, rifampin

54

Prophylaxis of strep pharyngitis in child with prior rheumatic fever?

Benzathine penicillin G

55

PYR+?

S. pyogenes

56

Hippurate test +?

GBS (S. agalactiae)

57

The only bacteria with a polypeptide capsule?

B. anthracis

58

G+ that produces endotoxin?

Listeria monocytogenes

59

All replication of DNA viruses are in the _____ except ____.

Nucleus, poxvirus

60

All replication of RNA viruses are in the ______ except ______.

Cytoplasm, retrovirus, influenza

61

Where does herpesvirus get its membrane?

Nuclear membrane

62

Calf myalgias in surfers in tropics. Dx and source?

Leptospirosis, water w/ animal urine

63

What is the natural reservoir of Borrelia burgdorferi?

Mouse

64

Broad based ataxia, Charcot joints, + Romberg sign, stroke w/out HTN

3 syphilis

65

Spiking fevers, HSM, pancytopenia. Dx?

Visceral leishmania