Renal Drugs Flashcards Preview

USMLE > Renal Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Renal Drugs Deck (42):
1

Mannitol - mech

Osmotic diuretic.
Increases tubular fluid osmolarity to increase urine flow, decrease ICP/IOP

2

Mannitol - use (2)

Drug overdose
Elevated ICP/IOP

3

Mannitol - side fx (3)

Pulmonary edema
Dehydration
Contraindicated in anuria, HF

4

Acetazolamide - mech

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
Gets rid of NaHCO3 from the body

5

Acetazolamide - use (5)

Glaucoma
Urinary alkalinization
Metabolic alkalosis
Altitude sickness
Pseudomotor cerebri

6

Acetazolamide - side fx (4)

Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis
Paresthesias
NH3 toxicity
Sulfa allergy

7

Furosemide - mech (4)

Sulfonamide loop diuretics
Inhibits NaK2Cl channel of ascending Loop of Henle and prevents concentration of urine
Stimulates PGE release (blocked by NSAIDs)
Increases Ca excretion

8

Furosemide - use (3)

Edematous states (HF, cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, pulmonary edema)
HTN
Hypercalcemia

9

Furosemide - side fx (6)

OH DANG!
Ototoxicity
Hypokalemia
Dehydration
Allergy (sulfa)
Nephritis (interstitial)
Gout

10

Bumetanide - mech (4)

Sulfonamide loop diuretics
Inhibits NaK2Cl channel of ascending Loop of Henle and prevents concentration of urine
Stimulates PGE release (blocked by NSAIDs)
Increases Ca excretion

11

Bumetanide - use (3)

Edematous states (HF, cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, pulmonary edema)
HTN
Hypercalcemia

12

Bumetanide - side fx (6)

OH DANG!
Ototoxicity
Hypokalemia
Dehydration
Allergy (sulfa)
Nephritis (interstitial)
Gout

13

Torsemide - mech (4)

Sulfonamide loop diuretics
Inhibits NaK2Cl channel of ascending Loop of Henle and prevents concentration of urine
Stimulates PGE release (blocked by NSAIDs)
Increases Ca excretion

14

Torsemide - use (3)

Edematous states (HF, cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, pulmonary edema)
HTN
Hypercalcemia

15

Torsemide - side fx (6)

OH DANG!
Ototoxicity
Hypokalemia
Dehydration
Allergy (sulfa)
Nephritis (interstitial)
Gout

16

Ethacrynic acid - mech

Phenoxyacetic acid derivative
Same action as furosemide

17

Ethacrynic acid - use

Diuresis in patients allergic to sulfa drugs

18

Ethacrynic acid - side fx

OH DNG + can cause hyperuricemia

19

Chlorthalidone - mech (3)

Thiazide diuretic
Inhibit NaCl reabsorption in early DCT to decrease diluting capacity of nephron
Decreases Ca excretion

20

Chlorthalidone - use (5)

HTN
HF
Idiopathic hypercalciuria
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
Osteoporosis

21

Chlorthalidone - side fx (7)

Hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis
Hyponatremia
Hyperglycemia
Hyperlipidemia
Hyperuricemia
Hypercalcemia
Sulfa allergy

22

Hydrochlorothiazide - mech (3)

Thiazide diuretic
Inhibit NaCl reabsorption in early DCT to decrease diluting capacity of nephron
Decreases Ca excretion

23

Hydrochlorothiazide - use (5)

HTN
HF
Idiopathic hypercalciuria
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
Osteoporosis

24

Hydrochlorothiazide - side fx (7)

Hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis
Hyponatremia
Hyperglycemia
Hyperlipidemia
Hyperuricemia
Hypercalcemia
Sulfa allergy

25

Spironolactone/Eplerenone - mech (2)

K+ sparing diuretic
Competitive aldosterone receptor antagonists in CCT

26

Spironolactone/Eplerenone - use (3)

Hypderaldosteronism
K+ depletion
HF

27

Spironolactone/Eplerenone - side fx (2)

Hyperkalemia (arrhythmias)
Endocrine effects with spironolactone

28

Triamterene - mech

K+ sparing diuretic
Blocks Na channels in CCT

29

Triamterene - use (3)

Hypderaldosteronism
K+ depletion
HF

30

Triamterene - side fx

Hyperkalemia (arrhythmias)

31

Amiloride - mech

K+ sparing diuretic
Blocks Na channels in CCT

32

Amiloride - use (3)

Hypderaldosteronism
K+ depletion
HF

33

Amiloride - side fx

Hyperkalemia (arrhythmias)

34

ACEi (prils) - mech (3)

Inhibit ACE to decrease AngII
Decrease GFR by preventing constriction of efferent arterioles
Bradykinin goes up because ACE can't break it down

35

ACEi (prils) - use (5)

HTN
HF
Proteinuria
Diabetic nephropathy (slows GBM thickening)
Prevents unfavourable heart remodeling in chronic HTN

36

ACEi (-prils) - side fx (7)

CATCHH
Cough
Angioedema
Teratogen
Creatinine Up (b/c GFR down)
Hyperkalemia
hTN
Avoid in bilateral renal artery stenosis b/c ACEi drop GFR, risk renal failure

37

ARBs (-sartans) - mech (2)

Binds AngII receptors
Does not increase bradykinin

38

ARBs (-sartans) - use (4)

HTN
HF
Proteinuria
Diabetic nephropathy
(If intolerance to ACEi)

39

ARBs (-sartans) - side fx (4)

Hyperkalemia
Decreased renal function
hTN
Teratogen

40

Aliskiren - mech

Direct renin inhibitor, blocks conversion of angiotensinogen to AngI

41

Aliskiren - use

HTN

42

Aliskiren - side fx

Hyperkalemia
Decreased renal function
hTN
Cx in diabetics on ACEi/ARBs