Cardiac Drugs Reverse Flashcards Preview

USMLE > Cardiac Drugs Reverse > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiac Drugs Reverse Deck (64):
1

Acute severe HTN, HF, safe for pregnancy. Given with B-blocker to prevent reflex tachycardia.

Hydralazine - use? 2+2

2

Acute ventricular arrhythmias (ESP POST MI)Digitalis-induced arrhythmias

Lidocaine & Mexiletine - use? (2)

3

AFib/Flutter

Ibutilide & Dofetilide - use

4

AFib/FlutterVT

Amiodarone & Sotalol - use

5

Angina, acute coronary synddrome, pulmonary edema

Nitroglycerin, Isosorbide dinitrate, Isosorbide mononitrate - use? (3)

6

Atrial arrhythmiasVentricular arrhythmiasRe-entrant and ectopic SVT/VTs

Quinidine, Procainamide, Disopyramide - use? (3)

7

Block voltage-dependent L-type Ca channels of cardiac and smooth muscle --> decrease muscle contractility in heartDecrease conduction velocityIncrease ERPIncrease PR interval

Diltiazem/verapamil - mech? (4)

8

Block voltage-dependent L-type Ca channels of cardiac and smooth muscle --> decrease muscle contractility in vascular smooth muscle

Nimodipine, Clevidipine, Nifedipine - mech?

9

Cardiac depressionAV block Peripheral edema, FlushingDizzinessConstipationGingival hyperplasia

Diltiazem - side fx? (7)

10

Cholinergic - nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, blurry yellow vision, arrhythmias, AV block
Hyperkalemia

Digoxin - side fx

11

Cinchonism (headache, tinnitus)
Thrombocytopenia
Torsades de pointes due to increased QT interval

Quinidine - side fx? (3)

12

Class IA antiarrhythmic (Na channel blocker)
Increase AP duration
Increase ERP in ventricular AP
Increase QT interval

Quinidine, Procainamide, Disopyramide - mech

13

Class IB antiarrhythmic (Na channel blocker)
Decrease AP duration
Prefers affect ischemic or depolarized Purkinje and ventricular tissue

Lidocaine, Mexiletine - mech? (2)

14

Class II Antiarrhythmics
Decrease SA and AV nodal activity by decreasing cAMP, Ca currents.
Decreases slope of phase 4
AV node is particularly sensitive - increases PR interval

B-blockers (-olol) - mech (4)

15

Class III Antiarrhythmic - K channel blocker
Increases AP durationIncreases ERP
Increases QT interval

Ibutilide, Dofetilide, Sotalol - mech? (4)

16

Class III Antiarrhythmic - K channel blocker
Increases AP duration
Increases ERP
Increases QT interval
Has Class I - 4 effects

Amiodarone - mech? (5)

17

CN toxicity

Nitroprusside - side fx?

18

CNS stimulation/depression
CV depression

Lidocaine, Mexiletine - side fx? (2)

19

Decrease LDL

Ezetimibe - use

20

Decrease LDL greatly
Increase HDL
Decrease TG

Statins - use (3)

21

Decrease LDL
Increase HDL (best)
Decrease TG

Niacin (Vit B3) - use?

22

Decrease LDL
Increase HDL slightly
Increase TG slightly

Cholestyramine, Colestipol, Colesevelam - use (3)

23

Decrease LDL
Increase HDL
Decrease TG greatly

Gemfibrozil, Bezafibrate, Clofibrate, Fenofibrate - use?

24

Diagnosing and abolishing SVT

Adenosine - use

25

Direct inhibition of Na/K ATPase to indirectly inhibit the Na/Ca exchanger leading to increase in IC Ca = positive inotropy
Stimulates vagus nerve to decrease HR

Digoxin - mech?

26

Dopamine D1 receptor agonist - coronary, peripheral, renal, and splanchnic vasodilation. Decreases BP and increases natriuresis.

Fenoldopam - mechanism?

27

Dyslipidemia

Metoprolol - side fx?

28

Exacerbate vasospasm in Prinzmetal angina

Propanolol - side fx?

29

Flushing
hTN
Chest pain
Sense of impending doom
Bronchospasm

Adenosine - side fx

30

GI upset
Decreased absorption of other drugs and fat soluble vitamins

Cholestyramine, Colestipol, Colesevelam - side fx? (2)

31

Heart failure
Thrombocytopenia
Torsades de pointes due to increased QT interval

Disopyramide - side fx? (3)

32

Hepatotoxicity (LFTs)
Myopathy (esp w/ fibrates & niacin)

Statins - side fx? (2)

33

HF (increase contractility)AFib (decrease conduction at AV node and depression of SA node)

Digoxin - use? (2)

34

HTN
Angina
AFib/flutter rate control
Prevention of nodal arrhythmias

Diltiazem/verapamil - use? (4)

35

HYPERPROLACTINEMIA
Cardiac depression
AV block
Peripheral edema,
Flushing
Dizziness
Constipation
Gingival hyperplasia

Verapamil - side fx? (8)

36

Hypertensive emergency (5)

Nitroprusside, Fenoldopam, Clevidipine, Labetalol, Nicardipine - use? (1)

37

Impotence
Exacerbation of COPD and asthma
CV fx (bradycardia, AV block, HF)
CNS fx (sedation)
Mask hypoglycemia

B-blockers (-olol) - side fx? (5)

38

Increases cGMP --> smooth muscle relaxation. Vasodilates arterioles > veins; afterload reduction

Hydralazine - mechanism?

39

Inhibit conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, decrease mortality in CAD patients

Statins - mech?

40

Inhibits lipolysis (hormone-sensitive lipase) in adipose tissueReduces hepatic VLDL synthesis

Niacin - mech? (2)

41

Myopathy (increased risk with statins)Cholesterol gallstones

Gemfibrozil, Bezafibrate, Clofibrate, Fenofibrate - side fx

42

None

Dofetilide - side fx

43

Prevent cholesterol absorption at small intestine brush border

Ezetimibe - mech

44

Prevent intestinal reabsorption of bile acids; liver uses cholesterol to make more

Cholestyramine, Colestipol, Colesevelam - mech

45

Proarrhythmic, especially post-MI (contraindicated)

Flecainide, Propafenone - side fx?

46

Pulmonary fibrosis
Hepatotoxicity
Hypo/hyperthyroidism
Neurologic fx
Constipation
CV effects (bradycardia, heart block, HF)
Check PFTs, LFTs, and TFTs

Amiodarone - side fx (7)

47

Rare increase in LFTs
Diarrhea

Ezetimibe - side fx? (2)

48

Red flushed face (fix with NSAIDs/long term use)
Hyperglycemia
Hyperuricemia

Niacin (Vit B3) - side fx?

49

Reflex tachycardia (tx with B-blockers)
Flushing
Headache
"Monday disease"

Nitroglycerin, Isosorbide dinitrate, Isosorbide mononitrate - side fx? (4)

50

Reflex tachycardia, fluid retention, headache, angina, lupus-like syndrome

Hydralazine - toxicity? (5)

51

Reversible SLE-like syndrome
Thrombocytopenia
Torsades de pointes due to increased QT interval

Procainamide - side fx? (3)

52

Saline
Atropine
Glucagon

B-blockers (-olol) - antidote? (3)

53

Shifts K out of cells to hyperpolarize and decrease Ca
Very short acting
Effects blunted by theophylline and caffeine

Adenosine - mech & considerations (2)

54

Short acting, increase cGMP via direct release of NO

Nitroprusside - mechanism?

55

Significantly prolongs ERP in AV node and accessory bypass tracts
No effect on ERP in Purkinje and ventricular tissue
Minimal effect on AP duration

Flecainide, Propafenone - mech? (3)

56

Slowly normalize K+Cardiac pacer
Anti-digoxin Fab fragments
Mg2+

Digoxin - antidote (4)

57

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

Nimodipine - use? (1)

58

SVTs, including AFibLast resort in refractory VT

Flecainide, Propafenone - use? (2)

59

SVT
Ventricular rate control for AFib/flutter

B-blockers (-olol) - use (2)

60

Torsades de pointes

Ibutilide - side fx

61

Torsades de pointes
Digoxin toxicity

Mg2+ - use (2)

62

Torsades de pointes
Excessive B blockade

Sotalol - side fx

63

Upregulate LPL to increase TG clearance
Activates PPAR-a to induce HDL synthesis

Gemfibrozil, Bezafibrate, Clofibrate, Fenofibrate - mech

64

Vasodilate by increasing NO in vasc smooth muscle - increase cGMP and smooth muscle relaxation. Veins more than arteries to decrease preload.

Nitroglycerin, Isosorbide dinitrate, Isosorbide mononitrate - mech?