Flashcards in USMLE Neuro Deck (17)
What is infected in meningitis?
Leptomeninges (not the dura)
What is the underlying etiologies of ALS?
Sporadic or familial (mutation of superoxide dismutase)
Genetic pathophysiology of Friederich's ataxia?
AR GAA repeats on chromosome 9, leading to free radical accumulation
Anencephaly is associated with?
T1DM, increased AFP in maternal blood and amniotic fluid
Holoprosencephaly is associated with?
Patau and fetal alcohol syndrome
Most common viral cause of meningitis?
Coxsackie A virus
What layers does a LP go through?
Skin, ligament, dura, arachnoid, NOT PIA
Difference between subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral/intraparenchymal hemorrhage?
Subarachnoid from berry aneurysms from ADPKD, Marfan's, Ehlers Danlos. Intraparenchymal from Charcot Bouchard aneurysms in lenticulostriate arteries 2ndary to HTN and hyaline arteriolosclerosis.
Difference between lacunar strokes and intracerebral hemorrhage?
Lacunar strokes are from hyaline arteriolosclerosis and affect lenticulostriate arteries. Intracerebral hemorrhage is from rupture of Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms in the LS arteries caused by hyaline arteriolosclerosis and HTN
Spherical tau protein. Dx?
FT dementia (Pick Disease)
What do you see on LP for MS?
IgGs with oligoclonal IgG bands and myelin basic protein
Pathophysiology of metachromatic leukodystrophy
Missing arylsulfate, accumulation of myelin in lysosomes
Pathophysiology of Krabbe's disease
Missing galactocerebridase, accumulation of galactocerebride in macrophages leading to peripheral neuropathy, optic atrophy
Pathophysiology of adrenoleukodystrophy
Can't attach CoA to fatty acid chains
Paralysis of vertical conjugate gaze. Lesion location?
Parinaud syndrome, superior colliculi
Problem with vision going down the stairs = what lesion?
CN IV (SR)