USMLE Neuro Flashcards Preview

USMLE > USMLE Neuro > Flashcards

Flashcards in USMLE Neuro Deck (17):
1

What is infected in meningitis?

Leptomeninges (not the dura)

2

What is the underlying etiologies of ALS?

Sporadic or familial (mutation of superoxide dismutase)

3

Genetic pathophysiology of Friederich's ataxia?

AR GAA repeats on chromosome 9, leading to free radical accumulation

4

Anencephaly is associated with?

T1DM, increased AFP in maternal blood and amniotic fluid

5

Holoprosencephaly is associated with?

Patau and fetal alcohol syndrome

6

Most common viral cause of meningitis?

Coxsackie A virus

7

What layers does a LP go through?

Skin, ligament, dura, arachnoid, NOT PIA

8

Difference between subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral/intraparenchymal hemorrhage?

Subarachnoid from berry aneurysms from ADPKD, Marfan's, Ehlers Danlos. Intraparenchymal from Charcot Bouchard aneurysms in lenticulostriate arteries 2ndary to HTN and hyaline arteriolosclerosis.

9

Difference between lacunar strokes and intracerebral hemorrhage?

Lacunar strokes are from hyaline arteriolosclerosis and affect lenticulostriate arteries. Intracerebral hemorrhage is from rupture of Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms in the LS arteries caused by hyaline arteriolosclerosis and HTN

10

Spherical tau protein. Dx?

FT dementia (Pick Disease)

11

What do you see on LP for MS?

IgGs with oligoclonal IgG bands and myelin basic protein

12

Pathophysiology of metachromatic leukodystrophy

Missing arylsulfate, accumulation of myelin in lysosomes

13

Pathophysiology of Krabbe's disease

Missing galactocerebridase, accumulation of galactocerebride in macrophages leading to peripheral neuropathy, optic atrophy

14

Pathophysiology of adrenoleukodystrophy

Can't attach CoA to fatty acid chains

15

Paralysis of vertical conjugate gaze. Lesion location?

Parinaud syndrome, superior colliculi

16

Problem with vision going down the stairs = what lesion?

CN IV (SR)

17

How do you treat a barbiturate or benzodiazepine overdose?

Supportive and flumazenil respectively