USMLE Respirology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in USMLE Respirology Deck (30):
1

What drugs are used for treating TB?

RIPE (Rifampin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, Ethambutol)

2

What do you have to check for when someone is taking Ethambutol?

Visual acuity

3

Dad has 1/30 chance of being a carrier for CF. Mom has a 1/100 chance of being a carrier for CF. What's the chance that their kid will have CF?

Independent events - likelihood dad is a carrier and will pass carrier allele to kid is 1/30 x 1/2. For mom, likelihood is 1/100 x 1/2. Multiply the two together = 1/12,000

4

Which lung regions are most likely to be affected by an aspiration pneumonia acquired while lying down?

Posterior segment of right upper lobe or superior segment of right inferior lobe.

5

Stimulation by what mechanism forms Langhans giant cells?

CD4+ T cell stimulation

6

What is the indication for rifampin monotherapy?

Meningococcal exposure - eliminates carrier state in those exposed.

7

An alcoholic gets an aspiration pneumonia. What drug do you use to treat and why?

Clindamycin for aerobic and anaerobic coverage (greater tendency in alcoholics for these pneumoniae)

8

What are examples of antibacterial drugs that disrupt wall synthesis?

Vancomycin and cefuroxime

9

What conditions might you see Cheyne-Stokes breathing (apnea followed by rising and falling tidal volumes) in?

CHF and neurological disease (TBI, stroke, brain tumour)

10

Chinese adult with cervical LN enlargement, pleomorphic keratin +ve cells in background of lymphocytes - dx?

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

11

What patient population is at higher risk for Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia and what are common signs?

Alcoholics and elderly - b/c of increased aspiration risk. Currant jelly sputum and abscess formation

12

What cells are critical in regeneration after lobar pneumonia?

Type 2 pneumocytes

13

What is the differential for coin lesions on CXR?

Lung cancer, granuloma, bronchial hamartoma?

14

What are bronchial hamartomas composed of?

Lung tissue + cartilage

15

What is the next step after finding a pneumonic coin lesion on CXR?

Compare to prior XRays

16

What is one of the main carcinogenic components of cigarette smoke?

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

17

TH2 induction produces what markers that do what to encourage asthma?

IL-4 - allows IgE production
IL-5 - calls eosinophils
IL-10 - promotes TH2, blocks TH1

18

How does N-acetylcysteine benefit people with CF?

Breaks disulfide bridges to achieve mucolysis

19

CF exhibits what physiologic changes to the respiratory mucosa?

Increased Na absorption, decreased Cl excretion

20

How does high altitude affect blood pH, PaO2, PaCO2, and plasma HCO3?

Increase, decrease, decrease, increase

21

African American female with pulmonary infiltrates and hilar lymphadenopathy. Dx?

Sarcoidosis

22

How do you distinguish between an acute respiratory acidosis and a chronic respiratory acidosis?

HCO3 compensation. If 30, then chronic.

23

If you pierce the piriform recess, what nerve will you hit and what reflex will you lose?

Superior laryngeal nerve of vagus. Cough.

24

What cells respond in the lungs for sarcoidosis?

CD4+ lymphocytes

25

TB with low catalase-peroxidase activity means which TB drug will be ineffective?

Isoniazid

26

What do nasal polyps make you think of?

Aspirin intolerant asthma
Child with CF
Recurrent rhinitis

27

What happens to radial traction on airways in restrictive lung disease?

It increases, pulling the airway open

28

If a lung bug stains red in mucicarmine, what is it?

Cryptococcus neoformans

29

Infection by cryptococcus neoformans most commonly manifests as:

Meningitis

30

Mycobacterium that grows in "serpentine changes" most likely has what quality?

Virulence - presence of cord factor