Flashcards in Week 1 Study Cards Deck (163):
What is Gross Anatomy?
the study of body structures you can see with the naked eye
What is the anatomical position?
human body is erect, head and toes pointed forward, arms hanging at side, palms facing forward
What is the abdominal?
anterior body trunk region inferior to the ribs
What is the antecubital?
anterior surface of the elbows
What is the axillary?
What is the brachial?
What is the buccal?
What is the carpal?
What is the cervical?
the neck region
What is the Coxal?
What is the deltoid?
roundness of the shoulder caused by the underlying deltoid muscle
What is the digital?
fingers or toes
What is the femoral?
What is the fibular?
side of the leg
What is the inguinal?
What is the mammary?
What is the manus?
What is the nasal?
What is the oral?
What is the orbital?
bony eye socket
What is the patellar?
anterior knee region
What is the pelvic?
the pelvis region
What is the pubic?
the genital region
What is the sternal?
region of the breastbone
What is the tarsal?
What is the thoracic?
What is the umbilical?
What is the cephallic
What is the gluteal?
What is the lumbar?
area of the back between the ribs and hips; the loin
What is the occipital?
The posterior aspect of the head/ base of the skull
What is the popliteal?
The back of the knee
What is the sacral
The area between the hips
What is the Scapular?
The scapula or shoulder blade area
What is the Sural?
The calf or posterior of the leg
What is the Vertebral?
area of the spinal column
What does superior mean?
What does anterior mean?
What does Medial mean?
toward the midline
What does inferior mean?
What does dorsal mean?
What does proximal mean?
nearer the truck or attached end
What does superficial mean?
toward or at the body surface
What does posterior mean?
What does cephalad mead?
toward the head
What does lateral mean?
away from the midline or median plane
What does caudad mean?
toward the tail
What does ventral mean?
What does distal mean?
farther from the trunk or point of attachment
What does deep mean?
away from the body surface or more internal
What are the three planes in a body to be "cut"
What is the frontal plane?
A cut that divides the body into anterior and posterior
What is the Median/Saggital plane?
A cut that divides the body lengthwise down the center to create a left and right
What is the transverse plane?
a plane that runs horizontally that divides the body into superior and inferior parts
What are transverse planes often times called?
What is the cranial cavity/ what organs are there?
within the rigid skull, contains the brain
What is the spinal cavity/ what is kept there?
Hollow spaces in the vertebrae that contain the spinal cord
What cavities are contained in the dorsal (back) body cavity?
What cavities are contained in the ventral (belly) body cavity?
thoracic, abdominopelvic, abdominal, pelvic
What is the thoracic cavity/ what is kept there?
cavity above the diaphragm where lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea
What is abdominopelvic cavity?
The cavity space below the diaphragm
What is the abdominal cavity?
area that houses stomach, intestines, liver, and other organs
What is the pelvic cavity?
The cavity enclosed by the pelvis and contains the reproductive organs, bladder, rectum
Due to the large size, what is the abdominopelvic cavity broken down into?
4 quadrants named after their location
What are the 4 quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity?
right upper, right lower, left upper, left lower
What are the nine regions of the abdominopelvic cavity?
What is the umbilical region?
The very middle region which includes the naval
What is the Right and Left Hypochondriac region?
The sides of the epigastric region, underneath armpits and overly the lower ribs
What is the Right and left lumbar region?
Between the ribs and the flaring part of the hip bones. Lateral to umbilical region
What is the epigastric region?
Immediately superior to the umbilical region, overlies most of the stomach
What is the Right and Left Iliac region?
Lateral to the hypogastric region and overlying the syperior parts of the hip bone
What is the hypogastric region?
Immediately inferior to the umbilical region, encompasses the pubic region
What are the building blocks of life?
What are groups of cells that are similar in structure and function called?
What are the four primary tissues?
What are tissues organized into to help perform specific functions?
What do epithelial tissue typically cover?
What is the function of epithelial tissue?
What are some characteristics of epithelial tissues?
1) fit closely together to form membranes that are bound together by junction
2)membranes always have one free edge
3)cells are attached and supported by an adhesive basement membrane
4)have no blood supply of their own
5)can easily regenerate
What is the free surface edge of epithelial cell called?
How are epithelial cells classified?
cell shape and relative number of layers
What is squamous epithelial cell?
What is cuboidal epithelial cell?
What is columnar epithelial?
What is simple epithelial?
What is stratified epithelial?
What pseudostratified epithelial?
fake layers, only single cells but oddly shaped
What is transitional epithelium?
peculiar stratified squamous epithelium formed of rounded cells with ability to slide over one another to allow the organ to be stretched
Where is transitional epithelium only found?
urinary system organs
What is simple squamous epithelium? where is it found? what is its function?
Single layer of closely packed flat epithelial cells. It is located is the kidney, air sacs of lungs, lining of hear, and blood vessels. It's function is to allow passage of materials by diffusion and filtration. May secrete lubricating substances.
What is simple cuboidal epithelium? where is it found? what is its function?
Single layer of cubelike cells. Located in kidney tubules, ducts of small glands, ovary surface. Function is for secretion and absorption
What is simple columnar epithelium? where is it found? what is its function?
Single layer of tall cells. Located in lining most of digestive track and gallbladder. Function is absorption, secretion of mucus, enzymes and other substance, ciliated ones propel mucus
What is pseudostratified columnar epithelium? where is it found? what is its function?
Single layer of cells of differing heights some not reaching the free surface. Located in ducts of large glands, parts of male urethra, trachea, upper respiratory tract. Function is secretion of mucus and propulsion of mucus
What is stratified squamous epithelium? where is it located? what is its function?
Thick membrane of several cell layers: cuboidal, columnar, squamous. Located in esophagus, mouth, vagina, epidermis of the skin. Its function is protecting underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion
What is transitional epithelium? Where is it located? What is its function?
basal cells, cuboidal or columnar. Lines the ureters, bladder, and part of urethra. Function is to stretch readily and permit distension of urinary organ
What is the most abundant and widely distributed of the tissue types?
where is connective tissue found in the body?
What are functions of connective tissue?
protect, support, bind together other tissues of the body, repair all body tissues
What is the name of the connective tissue that bones are composed of?
osseous tisse or bone
What is the tissue ligaments and tendons are made of ?
dense regular connective tissue
What is the nonliving material between the cells in connective tissue?
What is extracellular matrix composed of?
What are the two components of the extracellular matrix?
ground substance and fibers
What is ground substance?
glycoproteins and large polysaccharide molecules
What are the fibers?
collagenic fibers, elastic yellow fibers, reticular fibers
What is areolar connective tissue? where is it found? what is its function?
It is Gel-like matrix with all three fiber types including fibroblasts, phagocytes, some white blood cells. Found widely distributed under epithelial of body Its function is to wrap and cushion organs, phagocytes engulf bacter
What is adipose tissue? Where is it located and what is its function?
Made of closely packed adipocytes or fat cells and have nucleus pushed to the side by large fat droplets. They are located under skin, around kidneys and eyeballs, and with abdomen and breasts. The function is to provide reserve food fuel, insulate against heat loss, and protect organs
What is reticular connective tissue? Where is it located and what is its function?
It is a network of reticular fibers in a typical loose ground substance. It is located in the lymphoid organs and functions as fibers that form a soft internal skeleton that supports other cell types
What is Dense Connective tissue? Where is it located and what is its function?
It is primarily parallel collagen fibers, few elastin, and fibroblast. It is located in the tendons and most ligaments. The function is to attach muscles to bones or to muscles, attach bones to bones, and to withstand great tensile stress
What is Hyaline Cartilege? Where is it located and what is its function?
Firm matrix, collagen fibers from an imperceptible network. It forms most of the embryonic skeleton, covering the ends of long bones in joint cavities. The function is support and reinforcement
What are the two types of dense connective tissue?
irregular and regular
What is irregular dense connective tissue?
fibers going in different directions (skin)
What is regular dense connective tissue?
fibers going in the same direction
What is fibrocartilage? where is it found/function?
It is matrix similar but less firm than hyaline cartilage. It is located in intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, and discs of knee joint. The function is tensile strength and the ability to absorb shock
What is bone? where is it found/ function?
Bone is hard calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers. It is located in the bone and functions as supports and protection, provides leverage for muscles, and stores calcium and other minerals and fat
What is the overall function of muscle tissue?
to contract and produce movement of some body parts
What is skeletal muscle?
"meat'' of flesh of the body attached to the skeleton. Under voluntary control.
What are physical characteristics of skeletal muscle?
muscle cells are long, cylindrical, and multinucleate. have obvious striations
Where is cardiac muscle found?
only in the heart
What is the function of cardiac muscle?
to pump and propell the blood into the blood vessels
What are some physical characteristics of cardiac muscle?
striations, cardiac cells are branching cells with one nucleus that fit together, involuntary movement
What are intercalated disks?
junctions that connect cardiac muscle cells and allow them to work in unison
What is smooth muscle?
found in the walls of all hollow organs except the heart
What are some physical characteristics of smooth muscle?
no striations are visible, and the uninucleate smooth muscle cells are spindle shaped
What is skeletal muscle. Where's it found? What its function?
Long cylindrical multinucleate cells with obvious striations. They are located in skeletal muscles attaches to bones or skin. Function is voluntary movement, locomotion, manipulation of the environment
What is cardiac muscle? Where is it found? What is its function?
Branching, striated, generally uninucleate cells that interdigitate at specialized junctions (intercalated disks) Located in the walls of the heart and functions as propelling blood into the circulatory system. It is involuntary
What is smooth muscle? Where is it found? What is its function?
Spindle-shaped cells with central nuclei, arranged closely to form sheets. No striations. It is found mostly in the walls of hollow organs. The function is to propel substances or objects along internal passageways. It is involuntary control
What are the two substances that make up nervous tissue?
neuroglia and neurons
What is neuroglia?
cells that protect, support, and insulate the more delicate neurons
What are neurons?
highly specialized to receive stimuli and to conduct impulses to all parts of the body
What are neurons? Where are the located? Function?
Neurons are branching cells, that are long and extend from the nucleus. They are located in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. The function is to transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors and to effectors which control their activity
The skin makes up what organ system?
Functions of the skin?
insulates/ cushions/ protects
prevents water loss
mini excretory system
site of Vitamin D synthesis
regulating heat loss from the body
contains cutaneous sense organs
What are the two distinct regions of the skin?
epidermis and dermis
What is the tissue below the skin?
hypodermis or subcutaneous tissue
What is another name for epidermal cells?
What are the 5 layers of the epidermis?
1) stratum basale
2) stratum spinosum
3) stratum granulosum
4) stratum lucidum
5) stratum corneum
What is the stratum basale?
basal layer: single row of cells that butts the dermis. Continually undergoing cell division. Contains melanocytes
What are melanocytes?
spidery-brown cells in the skin that produce pigment
What is the stratum spinosome layer?
spiny layer: superficial to basal layer. Cells appear spikey because skin is prepared for histological examination
What is teh stratum granulosum layer?
granular layer: named for the abundant granules in its cells. some contain waterproofing glycolipid that is secreted into extracellular space. At the upper level of this border cells are beginning to die
What is the stratum lucidum layer?
clear layer: thing translucent band of flattened dead keratinocytes
What is the stratum corneum layer?
horny layer: outermost layer, 20-30 cells thick, cells are dead and flattened and scale like.
What are the two principle regions that make up the dermis layer?
papillary and reticular
What is the papillary layer?
uneven and has fingerlike projections called dermal papillae
What is the purpose of dermal papillae?
attaches to the epidermis above. provide fingerprints and allow friction. Pain receptors are also found here
What is the reticular layer?
deepest skin layer. contains blood vessels, sweat glands, sebaceous glands and pressure receptors
What two fibers are found throughout the dermis?
collagenic and elastic
What is tactile localization?
the ability to determine which portion of the skin has been touched
What adaptation in reference to tactile localization?
rate of receptor response slows and our conscious awareness of the stimulus declines or is lost until some type of stimulus change occurs
What are the two categories of cutaneous glands?
sebaceous glands and sweat glands
What are sebaceous glands?
glands found nearly all over the skin that produces sebum
What is serum?
mixture of oily substances and fragmented cells that acts as a natural skin cream or lubricant that keeps the skin soft and moist
What are the epithelial opening that are outlets for sweat?
What are sweat glands?
exocrine glands that are widely distributed in the skin
What are the two types of sweat glands?
What are eccrine glands?
produce clear perspiration of water and salts and urea
What are appocrine glands?
found in axillary and genital areas that secrete a milky protein and fat-rich substance that bacteria feed off of and produce odor
What is the epithelial structure that houses the hair?
What is the part of the hair enclosed in the follicle called?
What is the portion of hair ejecting from the skin called?
What is the base of the follicle called? What is function?
hair bulb, forms the hair through mitosis of the germinal epithelial cells