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Flashcards in Week 1 Study Cards Deck (163):
1

What is Gross Anatomy?

the study of body structures you can see with the naked eye

2

What is the anatomical position?

human body is erect, head and toes pointed forward, arms hanging at side, palms facing forward

3

What is the abdominal?

anterior body trunk region inferior to the ribs

4

What is the antecubital?

anterior surface of the elbows

5

What is the axillary?

The armpit

6

What is the brachial?

The arm

7

What is the buccal?

cheek

8

What is the carpal?

the wrist

9

What is the cervical?

the neck region

10

What is the Coxal?

the hip

11

What is the deltoid?

roundness of the shoulder caused by the underlying deltoid muscle

12

What is the digital?

fingers or toes

13

What is the femoral?

the thigh

14

What is the fibular?

side of the leg

15

What is the inguinal?

the groin

16

What is the mammary?

the breast

17

What is the manus?

hand

18

What is the nasal?

nose

19

What is the oral?

mouth

20

What is the orbital?

bony eye socket

21

What is the patellar?

anterior knee region

22

What is the pelvic?

the pelvis region

23

What is the pubic?

the genital region

24

What is the sternal?

region of the breastbone

25

What is the tarsal?

the ankle

26

What is the thoracic?

chest

27

What is the umbilical?

the navel

28

What is the cephallic

the head

29

What is the gluteal?

the buttocks

30

What is the lumbar?

area of the back between the ribs and hips; the loin

31

What is the occipital?

The posterior aspect of the head/ base of the skull

32

What is the popliteal?

The back of the knee

33

What is the sacral

The area between the hips

34

What is the Scapular?

The scapula or shoulder blade area

35

What is the Sural?

The calf or posterior of the leg

36

What is the Vertebral?

area of the spinal column

37

What does superior mean?

above

38

What does anterior mean?

front

39

What does Medial mean?

toward the midline

40

What does inferior mean?

below

41

What does dorsal mean?

backside

42

What does proximal mean?

nearer the truck or attached end

43

What does superficial mean?

toward or at the body surface

44

What does posterior mean?

back

45

What does cephalad mead?

toward the head

46

What does lateral mean?

away from the midline or median plane

47

What does caudad mean?

toward the tail

48

What does ventral mean?

belly side

49

What does distal mean?

farther from the trunk or point of attachment

50

What does deep mean?

away from the body surface or more internal

51

What are the three planes in a body to be "cut"

Frontal
Transverse
Median/ Saggital

52

What is the frontal plane?

A cut that divides the body into anterior and posterior

53

What is the Median/Saggital plane?

A cut that divides the body lengthwise down the center to create a left and right

54

What is the transverse plane?

a plane that runs horizontally that divides the body into superior and inferior parts

55

What are transverse planes often times called?

cross sections

56

What is the cranial cavity/ what organs are there?

within the rigid skull, contains the brain

57

What is the spinal cavity/ what is kept there?

Hollow spaces in the vertebrae that contain the spinal cord

58

What cavities are contained in the dorsal (back) body cavity?

cranial, spinal

59

What cavities are contained in the ventral (belly) body cavity?

thoracic, abdominopelvic, abdominal, pelvic

60

What is the thoracic cavity/ what is kept there?

cavity above the diaphragm where lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea

61

What is abdominopelvic cavity?

The cavity space below the diaphragm

62

What is the abdominal cavity?

area that houses stomach, intestines, liver, and other organs

63

What is the pelvic cavity?

The cavity enclosed by the pelvis and contains the reproductive organs, bladder, rectum

64

Due to the large size, what is the abdominopelvic cavity broken down into?

4 quadrants named after their location

65

What are the 4 quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity?

right upper, right lower, left upper, left lower

66

What are the nine regions of the abdominopelvic cavity?

Umbilical
epigastric
hypogastric
iliac
lumbar
hypochondriac

67

What is the umbilical region?

The very middle region which includes the naval

68

What is the Right and Left Hypochondriac region?

The sides of the epigastric region, underneath armpits and overly the lower ribs

69

What is the Right and left lumbar region?

Between the ribs and the flaring part of the hip bones. Lateral to umbilical region

70

What is the epigastric region?

Immediately superior to the umbilical region, overlies most of the stomach

71

What is the Right and Left Iliac region?

Lateral to the hypogastric region and overlying the syperior parts of the hip bone

72

What is the hypogastric region?

Immediately inferior to the umbilical region, encompasses the pubic region

73

What are the building blocks of life?

cells

74

What are groups of cells that are similar in structure and function called?

tissues

75

What are the four primary tissues?

epithelial
muscle
nervous
connective

76

What are tissues organized into to help perform specific functions?

organs

77

What do epithelial tissue typically cover?

surfaces

78

What is the function of epithelial tissue?

protection
absorption
filtration
excretion
secretion
sensory reception

79

What are some characteristics of epithelial tissues?

1) fit closely together to form membranes that are bound together by junction
2)membranes always have one free edge
3)cells are attached and supported by an adhesive basement membrane
4)have no blood supply of their own
5)can easily regenerate

80

What is the free surface edge of epithelial cell called?

apical surface

81

How are epithelial cells classified?

cell shape and relative number of layers

82

What is squamous epithelial cell?

flat, squished

83

What is cuboidal epithelial cell?

cube shape

84

What is columnar epithelial?

column, tall

85

What is simple epithelial?

single layer

86

What is stratified epithelial?

multiple layers

87

What pseudostratified epithelial?

fake layers, only single cells but oddly shaped

88

What is transitional epithelium?

peculiar stratified squamous epithelium formed of rounded cells with ability to slide over one another to allow the organ to be stretched

89

Where is transitional epithelium only found?

urinary system organs

90

What is simple squamous epithelium? where is it found? what is its function?

Single layer of closely packed flat epithelial cells. It is located is the kidney, air sacs of lungs, lining of hear, and blood vessels. It's function is to allow passage of materials by diffusion and filtration. May secrete lubricating substances.

91

What is simple cuboidal epithelium? where is it found? what is its function?

Single layer of cubelike cells. Located in kidney tubules, ducts of small glands, ovary surface. Function is for secretion and absorption

92

What is simple columnar epithelium? where is it found? what is its function?

Single layer of tall cells. Located in lining most of digestive track and gallbladder. Function is absorption, secretion of mucus, enzymes and other substance, ciliated ones propel mucus

93

What is pseudostratified columnar epithelium? where is it found? what is its function?

Single layer of cells of differing heights some not reaching the free surface. Located in ducts of large glands, parts of male urethra, trachea, upper respiratory tract. Function is secretion of mucus and propulsion of mucus

94

What is stratified squamous epithelium? where is it located? what is its function?

Thick membrane of several cell layers: cuboidal, columnar, squamous. Located in esophagus, mouth, vagina, epidermis of the skin. Its function is protecting underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion

95

What is transitional epithelium? Where is it located? What is its function?

basal cells, cuboidal or columnar. Lines the ureters, bladder, and part of urethra. Function is to stretch readily and permit distension of urinary organ

96

What is the most abundant and widely distributed of the tissue types?

connective

97

where is connective tissue found in the body?

all parts

98

What are functions of connective tissue?

protect, support, bind together other tissues of the body, repair all body tissues

99

What is the name of the connective tissue that bones are composed of?

osseous tisse or bone

100

What is the tissue ligaments and tendons are made of ?

dense regular connective tissue

101

What is the nonliving material between the cells in connective tissue?

extracellular matrix

102

What is extracellular matrix composed of?

protein fibers

103

What are the two components of the extracellular matrix?

ground substance and fibers

104

What is ground substance?

glycoproteins and large polysaccharide molecules

105

What are the fibers?

collagenic fibers, elastic yellow fibers, reticular fibers

106

What is areolar connective tissue? where is it found? what is its function?

It is Gel-like matrix with all three fiber types including fibroblasts, phagocytes, some white blood cells. Found widely distributed under epithelial of body Its function is to wrap and cushion organs, phagocytes engulf bacter

107

What is adipose tissue? Where is it located and what is its function?

Made of closely packed adipocytes or fat cells and have nucleus pushed to the side by large fat droplets. They are located under skin, around kidneys and eyeballs, and with abdomen and breasts. The function is to provide reserve food fuel, insulate against heat loss, and protect organs

108

What is reticular connective tissue? Where is it located and what is its function?

It is a network of reticular fibers in a typical loose ground substance. It is located in the lymphoid organs and functions as fibers that form a soft internal skeleton that supports other cell types

109

What is Dense Connective tissue? Where is it located and what is its function?

It is primarily parallel collagen fibers, few elastin, and fibroblast. It is located in the tendons and most ligaments. The function is to attach muscles to bones or to muscles, attach bones to bones, and to withstand great tensile stress

110

What is Hyaline Cartilege? Where is it located and what is its function?

Firm matrix, collagen fibers from an imperceptible network. It forms most of the embryonic skeleton, covering the ends of long bones in joint cavities. The function is support and reinforcement

111

What are the two types of dense connective tissue?

irregular and regular

112

What is irregular dense connective tissue?

fibers going in different directions (skin)

113

What is regular dense connective tissue?

fibers going in the same direction

114

What is fibrocartilage? where is it found/function?

It is matrix similar but less firm than hyaline cartilage. It is located in intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, and discs of knee joint. The function is tensile strength and the ability to absorb shock

115

What is bone? where is it found/ function?

Bone is hard calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers. It is located in the bone and functions as supports and protection, provides leverage for muscles, and stores calcium and other minerals and fat

116

What is the overall function of muscle tissue?

to contract and produce movement of some body parts

117

What is skeletal muscle?

"meat'' of flesh of the body attached to the skeleton. Under voluntary control.

118

What are physical characteristics of skeletal muscle?

muscle cells are long, cylindrical, and multinucleate. have obvious striations

119

Where is cardiac muscle found?

only in the heart

120

What is the function of cardiac muscle?

to pump and propell the blood into the blood vessels

121

What are some physical characteristics of cardiac muscle?

striations, cardiac cells are branching cells with one nucleus that fit together, involuntary movement

122

What are intercalated disks?

junctions that connect cardiac muscle cells and allow them to work in unison

123

What is smooth muscle?

found in the walls of all hollow organs except the heart

124

What are some physical characteristics of smooth muscle?

no striations are visible, and the uninucleate smooth muscle cells are spindle shaped

125

What is skeletal muscle. Where's it found? What its function?

Long cylindrical multinucleate cells with obvious striations. They are located in skeletal muscles attaches to bones or skin. Function is voluntary movement, locomotion, manipulation of the environment

126

What is cardiac muscle? Where is it found? What is its function?

Branching, striated, generally uninucleate cells that interdigitate at specialized junctions (intercalated disks) Located in the walls of the heart and functions as propelling blood into the circulatory system. It is involuntary

127

What is smooth muscle? Where is it found? What is its function?

Spindle-shaped cells with central nuclei, arranged closely to form sheets. No striations. It is found mostly in the walls of hollow organs. The function is to propel substances or objects along internal passageways. It is involuntary control

128

What are the two substances that make up nervous tissue?

neuroglia and neurons

129

What is neuroglia?

cells that protect, support, and insulate the more delicate neurons

130

What are neurons?

highly specialized to receive stimuli and to conduct impulses to all parts of the body

131

What are neurons? Where are the located? Function?

Neurons are branching cells, that are long and extend from the nucleus. They are located in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. The function is to transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors and to effectors which control their activity

132

The skin makes up what organ system?

integumentary

133

Functions of the skin?

insulates/ cushions/ protects
prevents water loss
mini excretory system
metabolic system
site of Vitamin D synthesis
regulating heat loss from the body
contains cutaneous sense organs

134

What are the two distinct regions of the skin?

epidermis and dermis

135

What is the tissue below the skin?

hypodermis or subcutaneous tissue

136

What is another name for epidermal cells?

keratinocytes

137

What are the 5 layers of the epidermis?

1) stratum basale
2) stratum spinosum
3) stratum granulosum
4) stratum lucidum
5) stratum corneum

138

What is the stratum basale?

basal layer: single row of cells that butts the dermis. Continually undergoing cell division. Contains melanocytes

139

What are melanocytes?

spidery-brown cells in the skin that produce pigment

140

What is the stratum spinosome layer?

spiny layer: superficial to basal layer. Cells appear spikey because skin is prepared for histological examination

141

What is teh stratum granulosum layer?

granular layer: named for the abundant granules in its cells. some contain waterproofing glycolipid that is secreted into extracellular space. At the upper level of this border cells are beginning to die

142

What is the stratum lucidum layer?

clear layer: thing translucent band of flattened dead keratinocytes

143

What is the stratum corneum layer?

horny layer: outermost layer, 20-30 cells thick, cells are dead and flattened and scale like.

144

What are the two principle regions that make up the dermis layer?

papillary and reticular

145

What is the papillary layer?

uneven and has fingerlike projections called dermal papillae

146

What is the purpose of dermal papillae?

attaches to the epidermis above. provide fingerprints and allow friction. Pain receptors are also found here

147

What is the reticular layer?

deepest skin layer. contains blood vessels, sweat glands, sebaceous glands and pressure receptors

148

What two fibers are found throughout the dermis?

collagenic and elastic

149

What is tactile localization?

the ability to determine which portion of the skin has been touched

150

What adaptation in reference to tactile localization?

rate of receptor response slows and our conscious awareness of the stimulus declines or is lost until some type of stimulus change occurs

151

What are the two categories of cutaneous glands?

sebaceous glands and sweat glands

152

What are sebaceous glands?

glands found nearly all over the skin that produces sebum

153

What is serum?

mixture of oily substances and fragmented cells that acts as a natural skin cream or lubricant that keeps the skin soft and moist

154

What are the epithelial opening that are outlets for sweat?

pores

155

What are sweat glands?

exocrine glands that are widely distributed in the skin

156

What are the two types of sweat glands?

eccrine glands
apocrine glands

157

What are eccrine glands?

produce clear perspiration of water and salts and urea

158

What are appocrine glands?

found in axillary and genital areas that secrete a milky protein and fat-rich substance that bacteria feed off of and produce odor

159

What is the epithelial structure that houses the hair?

follicle

160

What is the part of the hair enclosed in the follicle called?

root

161

What is the portion of hair ejecting from the skin called?

shaft

162

What is the base of the follicle called? What is function?

hair bulb, forms the hair through mitosis of the germinal epithelial cells

163

What are the small bands of smooth muscle cells called that connect each hair follicle to the dermis?

arrector pili