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Flashcards in Week 6 Study Cards Deck (229):
1

What are neural pathways in which reflexes occur over

reflex arcs

2

what are reflexes?

rapid, predictable, involuntary motor responses to stimuli

3

What are the two classification of reflexes?

autonomic and somatic

4

What are autonomic reflexes?

are not subject to conscious control

5

What are somatic reflexes?

all reflexes that stimulate skeletal muscle

6

What do autonomic reflexes activate?

smooth muscles, cardiac muscle, and the glands of the body and they regulate body functions such as digestion and blood pressure

7

What are the 5 parts of the reflex arc?

1) receptor
2) sensory neuron
3) integration center
4) motor neuron
5) effector

8

What is the receptor?

reacts to a stimulus

9

What is a sensory neuron

conducts the afferent impulses to the CNS

10

What is the integration center?

consists of one or more synapses in the CNS

11

What is the motor neuron?

conducts the efferent impulses from the integration center to an effector

12

What is the effector?

muscle fibers or glands that respond to the efferent impulses by contracting or secreting a product, respectively

13

What is monosynaptic?

one synapse reflex arc

14

What is polysynaptic?

one or more association neuron in the reflex arc pathway

15

What is synapse?

point of close contact between the neurons or a neuron and an effector cell

16

What is stretch reflexes?

important postural reflexes that act to maintain posture, balance, and locomotion

17

How are stretch reflexes produced?

by tapping a tendon which stretches the attached muscle

18

What does the stretching of the tendon stimulate?

muscle spindles and causes reflex contraction of the stretched muscle to resist further stretching

19

What is patellar reflex?

when knee ligament is tapped leg jerks forward

20

What is the achilles reflex?

assesses the first two sacral segments of the spinal cord which causes foot to dorsiflex

21

What is superficial cord reflexes?

abdominal and plantar reflexes

22

what are superficial cord reflexes initiated by?

stimulation of receptors in the skin and mucosae

23

What do the superficial cord reflexes depend upon?

both the brain participation and on the cord level reflex arc

24

What is plantar reflex?

stimulating the cutaneous receptors in the sole of the foot that cause the toes to flex and move closer together

25

What is the corneal relex?

reflex mediated through the trigeminal nerve by touching the eye which causes them to blink

26

What is the pupillary light reflex?

pupil adjusts to light by dilating or constricting

27

What is consensual reflexes?

one sense on one side and it does it on the other

28

What is contralateral response?

when a reflex is observed on one side of the body when the other side was stimulated

29

What is ipsilateral response?

reflex only occurs on the side where stimulation occurs

30

What are special sense receptors?

large, complex sensory organs (eyes or ears) or localized clusters of receptors (taste buds and olfactory epithelium)

31

What is the diameter of the adult human eye?

2.5 cm (1 inch)

32

Anteriorly, what is each eye protected by?

an eyelid

33

What are the medial and lateral junctions of the upper and lower eyelids referred to as?

medial and lateral commissures (canthi)

34

What lines the internal surface of the eyelids and continues over the anterior surface of the eyeball to the outer edge of the cornea where it fuses with the corneal epithelium?

conjunctiva mucous membrane

35

What is the function of the conjunctiva?

secrete mucous which lubricates the eyeball

36

What is inflammation of the conjunctiva?

conjunctivitis

37

What structure projects from the edge of each eyelid?

eyelashes

38

What lies between the eyelashes?

ciliary glands

39

What is the function of the ciliary glands between the eyelashes?

lubricate the eyeball

40

What is the inflammation of one of the ciliary glands?

sty

41

What is located posterior to the eyelashes?

tarsal glands

42

What is the function of the tarsal glands?

secrete an oily substance

43

What consists of the lacrimal gland and a system of ducts?

lacrimal apparatus

44

What lies superior and lateral to each eye?

lacrimal glands

45

What is the function of the lacrimal glands?

continually release a dilute salt solution (tears) onto the anterior surface of the eyeball through small ducts

46

What do the tears produced first flush into?

lacrimal canaliculi

47

What do the tears flush into after the lacrimal canaliculi?

lacrimal sac

48

After the lacrimal sac, where do the tears flush?

nasolacrimal duct

49

Where does the nasolacrimal duct empty into?

the nasal cavity

50

What is the purpose of lacrimal fluid?

to cleanse and protect the eye surface as it moistens and lubricates it

51

How many eye muscles are attached to the exterior surface of each eyeball

six

52

What is the lateral rectus?

moves eye laterally

53

What is the medial rectus?

moves eye medially

54

What is the superior rectus?

elevates eye and turns it medially

55

What is the inferior rectus?

depresses eye and turns it medially

56

What is the inferior oblique?

elevates eye and turns it laterally

57

What is the superior oblique?

depresses eye and turns it laterally

58

What is the outermost part of the eye and is a protective later

fibrous layer

59

What is the fibrous layer composed of?

dense connective tissue

60

The fibrous layer is composed of what two regions?

sclera and cornea

61

What is the sclera?

opaque white area is seen anteriorly as the white of the eye and forms the bulk of the fibrous tunic

62

What is the cornea?

transparent through which light enters the eye

63

What is myopia?

near sighted

64

What is hyperopia?

far sighted

65

The eye is not acellular, but rather

avascular

66

what is the middle tunic?

uvea

67

Which layer of the eye is vascular?

middle tunic

68

What is the posterior part of the middle tunic?

choroid

69

What is the choroid?

a blood rich area and contains a dark pigment to prevent light scattering within the eye

70

Anteriorly the choroid is modified to form what?

ciliary body

71

What is attached to the ciliary body?

lens and the iris

72

What is the round opening in the iris?

pupil through which light passes

73

What is the iris composed of?

circularly and radially arranged smooth muscle fibers and acts like the diaphragm of a camera to regulate the amount of light entering the eye

74

In close vision and bright light what muscles in the iris contract?

circular muscle

75

In distant vision and dim light what contracts in the iris?

radial fibers

76

What is the innermost layer of the eye?

sensory layer

77

What is the sensory layer also known as?

retina

78

What happens to light when it enters the eye?

it bends

79

What is the transparent layer that extends anteriorly only to the ciliary body

neural (nervous tissue) layer

80

What does the neural layer contain?

rods and cones

81

What is the function of the rods and cones?

begin the chain of electrical events that pass from the photoreceptors to bipolar cells and then to the ganglion cells

82

What is the site where the optic nerve leaves the eyeball?

optic disc or blind spot

83

What is lateral to each blind spot?

macula lutea (yellow spot)

84

What is the macula lutea?

an area of high cone density

85

Where is the macula lutea located?

in the middle of the fovea centralis

86

What is the fovea centralis

a minute pit which contians only cones and is the area of greatest visual acuity

87

What is light entering the eye focused through?

lens

88

What is the lens held up in place by?

ciliary zonule

89

What is the ciliary zonule?

attached to ciliary body

90

The lens divides the eye into what two segments?

anterior segment and the posterior segment

91

What is the anterior segment?

anterior to the lens and contains a clear watery fluid

92

What is the clear watery fluid?

aqueous humor

93

What is the posterior segment?

behind the lens and is filled with a gel-like substance

94

What is the gel-like substance?

vitreous humor, vitreous body

95

Where is the aqueous humor formed?

by the capillaries of the ciliary body

96

What is the function of aqeuous humor?

maintain the introcular pressure of the eye and provides nutrients for the avascular lens and cornea

97

Where is aqueous humor reabsorbed?

scleral venous sinus (canal of schlemm)

98

Where is the scleral venous sinus located?

junction of the sclera and cornea

99

What is the function of vitreous humor?

reinforces the posterior part of the eyeball and keeps it pushed into its socket

100

When light passes from one substance to another with a different density its velocity or speed of transmission changes and the rays are bent or what

refracted

101

What causes the light to change its shape?

lens refractive strength by changing shape

102

What is accommodation?

ability of the eye to focus specifically for close objects

103

What is the image formed on the retina as a result of the light-bending activity of lens called?

a real image

104

What is the normal eye also called?

emmetropic eye

105

What are some visual problems?

lenses that are too strong or too lazy, structural problems such as an eyeball that is too long or too short, cornea or lens with improper curvatures

106

What is nearsightedness?

They can see close objects without difficulty but distant objects are blurred or indistinct

107

What is the correction of nearsightedness?

concave lens

108

What happens if the image focuses behind the retina?

farsightedness?

109

What is farsightedness?

don't have problems with distant vission but cant see upclose

110

What is the correction of farsightedness?

convex lense

111

Irregularities in the curvature of the lens and or the cornea lead to a blurred vision called what

astigmatism

112

What is the condition that results when the elasticity of the lens decreases dramatically with age, resulting in difficulty in focusing for close vision

presbyopia

113

How can lens elasticity be measured?

near point of accommodation

114

What are the three cone types?

red, blue, green

115

What are intrinsic muscles?

controlled by autonomic nervous system are those of the ciliary body and the radial and circular muscles of the iris

116

What are the extrinsic muscles?

rectus and oblique muscles which are attached to the outside of the eyeball

117

What is convergence?

medial eye movement which is essential for near vision, both eye aimed toward the same object

118

the ear is divided into what three main areas?

external ear, middle ear, internal ear

119

What is the function of outer and middle ear?

sense of hearing only

120

What is the function of the inner ear?

hearing reception and equilibrium

121

What is composed of the outer/external ear

auricle or pinna, and external acoustic meatus

122

What is the pinna?

the skin covered cartilage encircling the auditory canal opening

123

WHat is the external acoustic meatus?

auditory canal, short narrow chamber carved into the temporal bone

124

What is the auditory canal lined with??

wax-secreting glands called ceruminous glands

125

The sound waves enter the canal and hit what?

tympanic membrane

126

What is the tympanic membrane?

eardrum that separates the outer ear from the middle ear

127

What is the middle ear?

small air filled chamber- the typanic cavity within the temporal bone

128

What is contained in the middle ear?

auditory ossicles

129

What are the auditory ossicles?

hammer, anvil, stirrup

130

What is the function of the auditory ossicles?

transmit vibratory motion of the eardrum to fluids of the inner ear

131

What do the auditory ossicles transmit the signals to the inner ear through?

oval window

132

What connects the middle ear chamber with the nasopharynx?

pharyngotympanic auditory tube

133

What is the pharyngotympanic tube function?

opened temporarily to equilize the pressure of the middle ear cavity with the external air pressure

134

Why is this function important (air pressure releasing)?

eardrum cannot vibrate properly

135

What is the internal of inner ear?

bony and rather toruous chamber called osseous, bony, labryinth

136

What is the bony labryinth filled with?

perilymph

137

What is floating in the perilymph?

membranous labyrinth

138

What is the membranous labryinth filled with?

more viscous fluid called endolymph

139

What are the three subdivisions of the bony labryinth?

cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals

140

What shape is the cochlea?

snail shaped

141

What does the cochlea contain?

receptors for hearing

142

What is the cochlear membranous labyrinth, a soft wormlike tube about 1 1/2 inches long that winds through turms of the cochlea?

cochlear duct

143

What is the upper chamber of the cochlea?

scala vestibuli

144

What does the scala vestibuli abut?

oval window

145

What is the lower chamber?

scala tympani

146

What does the scala tympani abut?

round window

147

What does the cochlear duct support?

spiral organ of Corti

148

What does the spiral organ of Corti contain?

receptors for hearing and nerve endings of the cochlear division of the vestibulochlear nerve

149

What do the hair cells rest on?

basilar membrane

150

What does the basilar membrane form?

the floor of the cochlear duct

151

What doe the hair project into?

tectorial membrane that overlies it

152

What is the roof of the cochlear duct?

vestibular membrane

153

What is the equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear?

vestibular and semicircular canal portions of the bony labryinth

154

What does the vestibular contain?

saclike utricle and the saccule and the semicircular chambers containing membranous semicircular ducts

155

What are the semicircular ducts?

suspended in perilymph in the bony chambers, filled with endolymph, contain receptor cells that are activated by the disturbance of their cilia

156

What do the semicircular ducts house?

dynamic equilibrium receptors

157

What is at the base of each semicircular duct (enlarged area)

ampulla

158

What does the ampulla contain?

receptor region called crista ampullaris

159

What does the crista ampullaris covered in?

tuft of hair cells with a gelatinous cap

160

What is this gelatinous cap called?

cupula

161

What do the membrane sacs in the vestibule contain?

maculae

162

What are maculae?

static equilibrium receptors that respond to gravitational pull and to linear or straightforwar changes in speed

163

What is the otolithic membrane?

a gelatinous material containing small grains of calcium carbonate

164

Where are the otolithic membrane?

over the hair cells in each macula

165

what is the second major controlling system in the body

endocrine system

166

what does the endocrine system do?

helps coordinate and integrate the activity of the body's cells

167

The nervous system uses neurons and electrical signals. What does the endocrine system use?

hormones and their chemical signals

168

What are hormones?

chemical messengers released into the blood to be transported throughout the body

169

What are some hormone producing glands?

anterior pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, parathyroid

170

Where is the pituitary gland situated?

sella turcica of the sphenoid bone

171

What are the two functional areas of the pituitary gland?

posterior pituitary and the anterior pituitary

172

What is the posterior pituitary gland composed of

nervous tissue

173

What is the anterior pituitary gland composed of

glandular tissue

174

Why is the posterior pituitary gland not an endocrine gland?

it does not produce the hormones it releases

175

What does the posterior pituitary gland store?

oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone ADH

176

What is oxytocin?

stimulates powerful uterine contractions during birth and causes milk ejection in the lactating mother

177

What is antidiuretic hormone?

kidneys to reabsorb more water from the forming urine, reducing urine output to conserve water

178

What does the anterior pituitary secrete?

number of hormones

179

What are tropic hormones

stimulate target organs that are also endocrine glands to secrete their hormones

180

What are the four tropic hormones of the anterior pituitary?

gonadotropins- follicle-stimlating horomone
luteinizing hormone
adrenocorticotropic hormone
thyroid stimulating hormone

181

What is the function of the gonadotropins hormone?

regulate gamete production and hormonal activity of gonads

182

What is the function of the adrenocorticotropic hormone?

regulates the endocrine activity of the cortex portion of the adrenal gland

183

What is the function of the thyroid stimulating hormone

influences the growth and activity of the thyroid gland

184

What are the 2 other hormones of the anterior pituitary that are not directly involved in regulating other endocrine glands?

growth hormone
prolactin

185

What is the function of the growth hormone?

general metabolic hormone, plays an important role in determining body size

186

What is the function of prolactin?

stimulates breast development and promotes and maintains milk production

187

What has been considered the master endocrine gland

anterior pituitary because it controls the activity of so many other endocrine glands

188

What causes the anterior pituitary to release its hormones?

releasing or inhibiting hormones produced by the hypothalamus

189

What is the general structure of the thyroid?

two lobes joined by a central mass or isthmus

190

Where is the thyroid located?

throat, inferior to adams apple

191

What are the two major hormones produced by the thyroid?

thyroid hormone and calcitonin

192

What is the thyroid hormone function?

two active hormones T4 and T3 and is to control the rate of body metabolism and cellular oxidation

193

What is the function of calcitonin?

decreases blood calcium levels by stimulating calcium deposit in the bones

194

What are follicles of the thyroid gland?

spherical sacs containing a pink stained material

195

What is stored in the follicles of the thyroid gland?

thyroglobulin

196

What are the cells seen between the follicles

parafollicular cells

197

What is the function of parafollicular cells?

calcitonin

198

Where are the parathyroid glands located?

embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland

199

What does the parathyroid gland secrete?

parathyroid hormone

200

What is the function of the parathyroid hormone?

regulator of calcium phosphate ion homeostasis of the blood, and causes release of calcium from bone matrixs and causes kidneys to reabsorb more calcium

201

If blood calcium levels fall too low what can occur

tetany

202

What is tetany?

prolonged muscle spasm, can cause respiratory paralysis and may be fatal

203

Where are the adrenal glands located?

atop the kidneys

204

Anatomically what does the adrenal medulla develop from?

neural tissue

205

How are the adrenal medulla stimulated?

nervous system neurons

206

How do the adrenal medulla respond to stimulation

releasing epinephrine or norepinephrine

207

What is the function of epinephrine or norepinephrine?

acts with the sympathetic nervous system to produce the fight or flight response to stressors

208

The adrenal cortex produces three major groups of steroid hormones called what

corticosteroids

209

What are the three hormones produced by adrenal cortex called individually?

mineralocorticoids
glucocorticoids,
gonadocorticoids

210

What is the function of mineralocorticoids?

aldosterone, which regulates water and electrolyte balance in the extracellular fluids

211

What is the function of glucocorticoids?

resist long-term stressors

212

What is the function of gonadocorticoids?

sex hormone

213

Where is the pancreas located?

partially behind the stomach in the abdomen ands acts as an exocrine and an endocrine gland

214

What does the pancreas release?

insulin and glucagon

215

What stimulates the release of insulin?

high blood glucose levels

216

What is the function of insulin?

decreases blood sugar levels

217

What is the function of glucagon?

it stimulates the liver to break down its glycogen stores to glucose and to release the glucose to the blood

218

What stimulates the release of glucagon?

too low of blood glucose levels

219

What are the roughly circular endocrine portions of the pancreas?

pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans)

220

What are alpha cells of the pancreas?

produce glucagon

221

What are the beta cells of the pancreas?

synthesize insulin

222

Where are the gonads located?

in the lower pelvic cavity

223

What are the female gonads?

ovaries

224

What do the female gonads produce?

female sex cells, two groups of steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone

225

What is the function of estrogen?

development of the secondary sex characteristics of the female at puberty

226

What is the function of progesterone?

work with estrogen to bring about the menstrual cycle

227

What are the male gonads?

testes

228

What do the testes produce?

male sex cells, testosterone

229

What is the function of testosterone

produces the maturation of the reproductive system accessory structures