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Flashcards in Week 5 Study Cards Deck (135):
1

Nervous tissue is composed of what two principal cell populations?

neurons and supporting cells

2

What are other names for supporting cells?

neuroglia or glial cells

3

What is CNS?

central nervous system

4

What is PNS?

peripheral nervous system

5

What are neurons/ functions?

specialized cells to transmit messages from one part of the body to another

6

What are structures of the neurons?

cell body, nuclei, ganglia

7

What are the extensions of the neurons called?

processes or fibers

8

What is ganglia?

clusters of neuron cell bodies outside the CNS

9

What do neurons make up in the nervous system?

gray matter

10

What do the neuron processes form in the CNS?

tracts of white matter

11

What do the neuron processes form in the PNS?

peripheral nerves

12

Other than the nucleus what is the other large dot in the cell body?

nucleolus

13

What is the neurons cytoplasm composed of?

neurofibrils with rough ER called Nissl bodies

14

What are neuron processes that conduct electrical currents toward the cell body called?

dendrites

15

What are neuron processes that conduct electrical currents away from the cell body?

axons

16

How many axons do neurons have?

one

17

How is a neuron excited?

by signal or other neurons

18

What is the end of the axon called?

axon terminal

19

The axon terminals store what?

neurotransmitters

20

What is the tiny gap that separates an axon terminal and dendrites?

synaptic cleft

21

What is the fatty material that covers long nerve fibers?

myelin

22

What are myelin fibers referred to as?

myelinated

23

What are the special cells that mylinate the axons?

Schwann cells

24

How do schwann cells work?

wrap themselves around the outside of axon with nucleus on outside

25

What encompases the cell once the schwann cell wraps

myelin sheath

26

What is the myelin sheath composed of?

tight core of plasma membrane material

27

What is the part of the schwann cell external to the myelin sheath called?

neurilemma

28

What are the gaps between the schwann cells called?

nodes of Ranvier

29

What determines the structural classification of neuron cells?

How many processes are attached to cell body

30

What is a unipolar neuron?

One very short process which divides into distal and proximal that extend away from cell body

31

What is bipolar neurons?

one axon and one dendrite attached to the cell body

32

What are multipolar neurons

all are dendrites except for a single axon

33

What are neurons that carry impulses from the sensory receptors in the internal organs or in the skin called?

sensory, afferent neurons

34

What are motor or efferent neurons?

Neurons that carry activating impulses from the CNS to muscles and glands

35

What are interneurons or association neurons?

situated in pathways that connect sensory and motor neurons. Their cell bodies are always located within the CNS and they are multipolar

36

What is each fiber of a nerve surrounded by?

endoneurium

37

What are groups of fibers bound by?

perineurium

38

What do these groups of fibers surrounded by perineurium form?

fascicle bundles

39

What are all fascicles bound together by?

epineurium

40

What are neurons that carry both sensory and motor fibers called?

mixed nerves

41

What are nerves that only carry sensory processes and conduct impulses only toward the CNS?

sensory or afferent nerves

42

What are nerves that only carry motor fibers?

motor or efferent nerves

43

What are the two principal divisions of the nervous system?

central nervous system
peripheral nervous system

44

What consists of the central nervous system?

brain and spinal cord

45

What consists of the peripheral nervous system?

cranial and spinal nerves, ganglia, sensory receptors

46

What are the four major regions of the brain?

cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, cerebellum

47

What is the most superior part of the brain?

cerebral hemispheres

48

What is gyri?

elevated ridges of the brain surface

49

What separates gyri?

fissures or sulci

50

What fissure separates the cerebral hemispheres?

longitudinal fissure

51

What divides the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe?

central sulcus

52

What separates the temporal lobe from the parietal lobe?

lateral sulcus

53

What divides the occipital lobe from the parietal lobe?

parieto-occipital sulcus

54

Where is the primary somatic sensory area located?

in the parietal lobe posterior to the central fissure

55

Where is the primary motor area? What is its function?

allow us to consciously move our skeletal muscles and is anterior to the central fissure in the frontal lobe

56

Where is the premotor area? What is its function?

region that stores the instructions for sequences of motor activity located anterior of primary motor area

57

What is Broca's area?

specialized motor speech area found at base of primary motor area above the lateral sulcus

58

What is the cerebral cortex?

outermost gray matter of cerebrum

59

What is the cerebral white matter?

fiber tracts carrying impulses to or from the cortex

60

What is the most superior portion of the brain stem?

diencephalon

61

What is cerebral peduncles?

fiber tracts in the midbrain connecting the pons below with cerebrum above

62

What does pons mean?

bridge

63

What are the pons?

consists of primarily of motor and sensory fiber tracts connecting the brain with lower CNS centers

64

What is the lowest brain stem region?

medulla oblongata

65

What does the medulla house?

vital autonomic centers involved in the control of visceral activities such as heart rate, respiratory rhythm and blood pressure

66

What is the structure of the thalamus?

two large lobes of gray matter that laterally enclose the shallow third ventricle of the brain

67

What is intermediate mass/ function?

stalk of thalamic tissue, connecting two lobes and spans the ventricle

68

What is function of thalamus?

relay station for sensory impulses passing upward to the cortical sensory areas

69

What makes up the third ventricle?

hypothalamus

70

What is the function of the hypothalamus?

important autonomic center involved in body temperature regulation and water balance

71

Where is hypothalamus located?

pituitary gland

72

What is the mamillary bodies?

relay stations for olfaction, bulge exteriorly from the floor of the hypothalamus just posterior to the pituitary gland

73

What forms the roof of the third ventricle?

epithalamus

74

What are important structures of the thalamus?

pineal gland and choroid plexus

75

What is the cerebral aqueduct?

slender canal traveling through the midbrain, connects the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle in the pons and medulla below

76

What is the treelike branching of the cerebellar white matter

arbor vitae

77

What are the connective tissue membranes that cover and protect the brain?

meninges

78

What is the outermost membrane?

dura mater

79

The dura mater has two layers what are they?

periosteal layer and meningeal layer

80

The dura mater is fused together except for three areas such as one fold that hold it in place in skull. What is name of fold?

falx cerebri

81

Where does falx cerebri attach?

to the crista galli of the ethmoid bone of the skull

82

What is the cavity created by the falx cerebri attachment?

superior sagittal sinus

83

What is the middle membrane?

arachnoid mater

84

What space separates the arachnoid and dura mater?

subdural space

85

The subdural space has threadlike projections that bridge into what?

subarachnoid space

86

Where do the threadlike projections attach?

pia mater

87

What is the subarachnoid space filled with?

cerebrospinal fluid

88

What are the specialized projections of the arachnoid tissue called?

arachnoid villi

89

Where doe the arachnoid villi protrude/ attach?

through dura mater to allow the cerebrospinal fluid to drain back into the venous blood via the superior sagittal sinus

90

What continually forms the cerebrospinal fluid?

choroid plexuses

91

What are the choroid plexuses?

small capillary knots hanging from the roof of the ventricles of the brain

92

What is the function of cerebrospinal fluid?

watery cushion that protects the brain tissue against blows to the head

93

What system are the cranial nerves apart of?

peripheral nervous system

94

How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?

12

95

What is considered a continuation of the brain?

spinal cord

96

What is the spinal cord enclosed in by?

vertebral column

97

Where does the spinal cord extend?

foramen magnum of the skull to the first or second lumbar vertebrae

98

What cushions and protects the spinal cord?

meninges

99

How many pairs of spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord?

31 pairs

100

What is the collection of spinal nerves at the inferior end of the vertebral column?

cauda equina

101

What is the part of the spinal cord that looks like a butterfly or an H?

gray matter

102

What are the two posterior protrusions of the gray matter called?

dorsal horns

103

What are the two broader anterior projections of the gray matter called?

ventral horns

104

What is the lateral outpocketing of gray matter in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the cord?

lateral horns

105

The central gray matter surrounds what?

central canal

106

What is contained in the central canal

cerebrospinal fluid

107

Where do association neurons and sensory fibers enter the cord?

dorsal root of the dorsal horn

108

the cell bodies of these sensory neurons are found in what enlarged area of the dorsal root?

dorsal root ganglion

109

The ventral horns contain cell bodiest of motor neurons that exit through what?

ventral root

110

What is the small area where ventral and dorsal roots combine before splitting off?

spinal nerves

111

What is the white matter of the spinal cord composed of?

myelinated fibers

112

White matter is divided into three regions, what are they?

posterior
lateral
anterior columns

113

What does each white column contain?

fiber tracts

114

What are fiber tracts?

axons with the same origin, destination, and function

115

What are dorsal and ventral rami?

the divisions right after spinal nerve

116

The ventral rami of all other spinal nerves forms what complex nerve network?

plexuses

117

When the ventral rami of spinal nerves T2-T12 pass anteriorly what do they form?

intercostal nerves

118

What is the cervical plexus?

arises from the ventral rami of c1 through c5 and supplies muscles of the shoulder and neck

119

What is the major motor branch of this plexus?

phrenic nerve

120

Which vertebrae ventral rami roots form phrenic nerve?

C3-C5

121

What nerve arises from the ventral rami of C5-C8 and T1

brachial plexus

122

The brachial plexus divides into what?

5 major peripheral nerves

123

What nerve serves the muscles and skin of the shoulder?

axillary nerve

124

What is the radial nerve?

passes down the posterolateral surface of the limb supplying all the extensor muscles of the arm forearm and hand and the skin

125

What is the median nerve?

passes down the anterior surface of the arm to supply most of the flexor muscles in the forearm and several muscles in the lateral part of the hand

126

What is the musclocutaneous nerve?

supplies the arm muscles that flex the forearm and the skin of the lateral surface of the forearm

127

What is the ulnar nerve?

travels down the posteromedial surface of the arm, supplies the flexor carpi ulnaris and all intrinsic muscles of the hand not served by the median nerve

128

What is the lumbar plexus?

arises from ventral rami of L1 through L4 and serves the anteromedial thigh and lower abdominal region

129

What is the largest nerves of the lumbar plexus?

femoral nerve

130

What is the femoral nerve?

innervates the anterior thigh muscles

131

What is the sacral plexus?

arises from L4 and S4 and supply the buttock and posterior thigh and virtually all of the leg and foot

132

What is the major nerve of the sacral plexus?

sciatic nerve

133

What is the sciatic nerve?

largest nerve in the body, travels through the greater sciatic notch and down the posterior thigh serving its flexor muscles and skin

134

What does the sciatic nerve divide into?

common fibular nerve and tibial nerve

135

What does the common fibular nerve and tibial nerve supply

the balance of the leg and foot