Flashcards in Week 7 Study Cards Deck (121):
What is the color of blood?
bright scarlet to dull brick red
What determines the color of blood?
how much oxygen there is
how many liters of blood does the human body contain?
What is blood classified as?
What is plasma?
non living fluid matrix
What are formed elements?
When do the fibers of blood become visible?
when clotting occurs
What composes the fibers of blood?
How many substances are dissolved or suspended in blood?
more than 100 different substances
What is the main composition of blood plasma?
What percent composition is water in the blood?
What are the three types of formed elements in the blood?
What are erythrocytes?
red blood cells
What is the structure/ function of red blood cells?
sacs of hemoglobin molecules that transport oxygen and small amounts of carbon dioxide
What are leukocytes?
white blood cells
What is the function of white blood cells?
body's nonspecific defenses and the immune system
What are platelets' function?
function in hemostasis (blood clot formation)
What percent does formed elements account for?
What percentage does plasma account for?
What makes up the 10% of blood that is not water?
salts, ions, proteins
What makes red blood cells different from other cells in blood?
anucleate when mature (no nucleus)
What is the life span of red blood cells?
What is more typical, red blood cells or white blood cells?
Why are leukocytes more common?
they have a nucleus and can reproduce
What are the two group classifications of white blood cells?
What are granulocytes
they have granules in their cytoplasm stain differentially with Wrights stain and they have peculiar nuclei consisting of lobes of nuclear material connected by thin strands of nucleoplasm
What are the three types of granulocytes?
What percentage of white blood cells are neutrophils?
What is unique about neutophil nuclei?
lobed of 3-7 lobes
What is the function of neutrophil?
active phagocytes, increase in number during active infections
What percentage of white blood cells are eosinophil?
What is the eosinophil nucleus look like?
figure 8 or bilobed in shape
What is the function of eosinophil?
increase in number during allergies and parasite infections
What percentage does basophils make up of white blood cells?
What does the nucleus of a basophil look like?
large U or S shaped nucleus and has coarse sparse granules
What does the granules in basophils contain and how does this aid to its function?
contains chemicals including histamine, a vasodilator that helps mediate the inflammatory response
What are agranulocytes?
have no observable cytoplasmic granuls
Where are agranulocytes abundantly found?
in lymphoid tissues
What is the typical agranulocyte nuclei look like?
round, shperical, oval, or kidney shaped
What are the two types of agranulocytes?
What are lymphocytes/ function?
warrior of the immune system
What percentage of white blood cells does lymphocytes make up?
What is unique about the nucleus of the lymphocyte?
very large with little cytoplasm
What is a monocyte?
active phagocyte in long-term cleanup team, increasin in number during chronic infections
What percentage of white blood cells does a monocyte make up?
What is unique about the monocyte's nucleus?
kidney bean shaped
What are platelets fragments of?
what is the normal platelet count in blood?
150,000 to 400,000 per cubic mm
What is the function of platelets?
clotting process that occurs in plasma when blood vessels are ruptured
What is the average number of cells per cubic millimeter
4800 to 10800
What is leukocytosis?
an abnormally high WBC count, indicating bacterial or viral infection, hemorrhage, or poisoning by drugs or chemicals
What is leukopenia?
abnormally low white blood cell count which may indicate measles, infectious hepatitis or cirrhosis, tuberculosis, excessive antibiotic or X-ray therapy
What is leukemia?
malignant disorder of the lymphoid tissue characterized by uncontrolled cell division of abnormal WBC and the reduction RBC and platelets
What is the normall RBC count average per cubic mm?
4.2-5.4 million cells for women
4.7-6.1 for men
What is polycythemia?
increase in the number of RBC may result from bone marrow cancer or from living at high altitudes where less oxygen is available
What is anemia?
What does the term anemia indicate?
decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of blood that may result from a decrease in RBC number or size or a decreased hemoglobin content of the RBC
What is typically done when anemia is suspected?
What is a hematocrit?
centrifuging whole blood spins the formed elements to the bottom, plasma to the top layer
What is coagulation?
What is blood clotting?
protective mechanism that minimizes blood loss when blood vessels ruptured
What is released first in blood clotting?
tissue factor, TF and PF which trigger the clotting mechanism or cascade
What do the TF and PF interact with
clotting factors and calcium ions
What do these form?
What does the prothrobin activator convert>
prothrombin to thrombin
What is the function of thrombin?
acts enzymatically to polymerize the soluble fibrinogen proteins into insoluble fibrin
What does fibrin form?
the meshwork of strands that traps the RBC and forms the basis of the clot
What is the time frame for clotting?
What is blood typing?
classifying blood based on specific glycoproteins present on the outer surface of the plasma membrane of RBC
What are proteins called on the plasma membrane?
antigens or agglutinogens
What are the plasma proteins that accompany the antigens
What is the major function of the cardiovascular system?
What is the heart?
cone shaped organ approximately the size of a fist
Where is the heart located?
in the mediastinum of the medial cavity of the thorax
What is the heart flanked by?
What rests on the diaphragm at the 5th intercostal space
what part of the heart lies beneath the second rib and points towards the right shoulder
base where great vessels emerge
What is the heart enclosed in by??
what is the visceral pericardium?
thin epicardium is closely applied to the outer surface of the heart
what is the parietal pericardium?
outer, loose layer of dense fibrous connective tissue which anchors to diaphragm
What fills between these two membrane layers?
What are the walls of the heart composed primarily of?
cardiac muscle, myocardium
What are the four chambers of the heart?
two superior atria, two inferior ventricles
What lines these chambers?
thing serous membrane endocardium
What is the septum that divides the heart longitudinally?
interatial or interventricular septum
What type of blood does the right atrium and ventricle receive?
Where does the blood come from into the right side of the heart?
superior and inferior venae cavae
What delivers oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium?
What does the right ventricle pump blood into?
What does the pulmonary trunk do?
sends blood to lungs to be oxygenated
Where does the left ventricle discharge blood?
What is the aorta?
divides into systemic arteries of the body to supply the body tissues
What enforces a one way flow of blood through the heart?
What are the atrioventricular valves?
located between the atrium and ventricle on each side, prevent backflow into the atria when the ventricles are contracting
What is the left atrioventricular valves also called?
mitral or bicuspid valve
What does the bicuspid valve contain to aid in function?
two cusps, or flaps of endocardium
What does the right atrioventricular valve have to aid in function?
what is another name for the right atrioventricular valve?
What anchors the cusps to the ventricular walls?
chordae tendinae, white collagenic cords
What is the second set of valves?
pulmonary and aortic semilunar valves
What is the function of these valves?
guards the bases of the two large arteries leaving the ventricles.
How many cusps are on the semilunar valves?
How is the heart a double pump?
right side serves as pulmonary circulation, the left side serves as systemic circulation
What is pulmonary circulation?
sends the carbon dioxide rich blood into the lungs to pick up oxygen then back to the heart
What is the systemic circulation?
carries oxygen rich blood from the left heart through the body tissues and back to the right heart
What is the blood supply of the heart provided by?
right and left coronary arteries
Where do the coronary arteries branch from?
the base of the aorta and encircle the heart
What do the coronary arteries encircle the heart to?
What side of the heart does the right coronary artery supply?
posterior surface of the ventricles and the lateral aspect of the right side of the heart
How does the right coronary artery supply the heart?
through posterior interventricular and marginal artery branches
What side does the left coronary artery supply?
anterior ventricular walls and the laterodorsal part of the left side of the heart
How does the left coronary artery supply the heart?
anterior interventrical artery and the circumflex artery
What is the myocardium drained by?
Where does the dranined blood enter?
What is the coronary sinus?
a large vessel on the backside of the heart
Where does the coronary sinus along with anterior cardiac veins empty?
the right atrium
What are auricles?
earlike flaps of tissue projecting from the atrial chambers
WHich side of the heart is thicker?
What is the first branch of the aorta?
What is the ligamentum arteriosum?
a remnant of the ductus arteriosus