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Flashcards in Week 7 Study Cards Deck (121):
1

What is the color of blood?

bright scarlet to dull brick red

2

What determines the color of blood?

how much oxygen there is

3

how many liters of blood does the human body contain?

5.5 L

4

What is blood classified as?

connective tissue

5

What is plasma?

non living fluid matrix

6

What are formed elements?

living cells

7

When do the fibers of blood become visible?

when clotting occurs

8

What composes the fibers of blood?

fibrin threads

9

How many substances are dissolved or suspended in blood?

more than 100 different substances

10

What is the main composition of blood plasma?

water

11

What percent composition is water in the blood?

90%

12

What are the three types of formed elements in the blood?

1) erythrocytes
2) leukocytes
3) platelets

13

What are erythrocytes?

red blood cells

14

What is the structure/ function of red blood cells?

sacs of hemoglobin molecules that transport oxygen and small amounts of carbon dioxide

15

What are leukocytes?

white blood cells

16

What is the function of white blood cells?

body's nonspecific defenses and the immune system

17

What are platelets' function?

function in hemostasis (blood clot formation)

18

What percent does formed elements account for?

45%

19

What percentage does plasma account for?

55%

20

What makes up the 10% of blood that is not water?

salts, ions, proteins

21

What makes red blood cells different from other cells in blood?

anucleate when mature (no nucleus)

22

What is the life span of red blood cells?

100-120 days

23

What is more typical, red blood cells or white blood cells?

leukocytes

24

Why are leukocytes more common?

they have a nucleus and can reproduce

25

What are the two group classifications of white blood cells?

Granulocytes
Agranulocytes

26

What are granulocytes

they have granules in their cytoplasm stain differentially with Wrights stain and they have peculiar nuclei consisting of lobes of nuclear material connected by thin strands of nucleoplasm

27

What are the three types of granulocytes?

neutrophil
eosinophil
basophil

28

What percentage of white blood cells are neutrophils?

50-70%

29

What is unique about neutophil nuclei?

lobed of 3-7 lobes

30

What is the function of neutrophil?

active phagocytes, increase in number during active infections

31

What percentage of white blood cells are eosinophil?

2-4%

32

What is the eosinophil nucleus look like?

figure 8 or bilobed in shape

33

What is the function of eosinophil?

increase in number during allergies and parasite infections

34

What percentage does basophils make up of white blood cells?

0.5-1%

35

What does the nucleus of a basophil look like?

large U or S shaped nucleus and has coarse sparse granules

36

What does the granules in basophils contain and how does this aid to its function?

contains chemicals including histamine, a vasodilator that helps mediate the inflammatory response

37

What are agranulocytes?

have no observable cytoplasmic granuls

38

Where are agranulocytes abundantly found?

in lymphoid tissues

39

What is the typical agranulocyte nuclei look like?

round, shperical, oval, or kidney shaped

40

What are the two types of agranulocytes?

lymphocyte
monocyte

41

What are lymphocytes/ function?

warrior of the immune system

42

What percentage of white blood cells does lymphocytes make up?

25%-45%

43

What is unique about the nucleus of the lymphocyte?

very large with little cytoplasm

44

What is a monocyte?

active phagocyte in long-term cleanup team, increasin in number during chronic infections

45

What percentage of white blood cells does a monocyte make up?

3-8%

46

What is unique about the monocyte's nucleus?

kidney bean shaped

47

What are platelets fragments of?

megakaryocytes

48

what is the normal platelet count in blood?

150,000 to 400,000 per cubic mm

49

What is the function of platelets?

clotting process that occurs in plasma when blood vessels are ruptured

50

What is the average number of cells per cubic millimeter

4800 to 10800

51

What is leukocytosis?

an abnormally high WBC count, indicating bacterial or viral infection, hemorrhage, or poisoning by drugs or chemicals

52

What is leukopenia?

abnormally low white blood cell count which may indicate measles, infectious hepatitis or cirrhosis, tuberculosis, excessive antibiotic or X-ray therapy

53

What is leukemia?

malignant disorder of the lymphoid tissue characterized by uncontrolled cell division of abnormal WBC and the reduction RBC and platelets

54

What is the normall RBC count average per cubic mm?

4.2-5.4 million cells for women
4.7-6.1 for men

55

What is polycythemia?

increase in the number of RBC may result from bone marrow cancer or from living at high altitudes where less oxygen is available

56

What is anemia?

low RBC

57

What does the term anemia indicate?

decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of blood that may result from a decrease in RBC number or size or a decreased hemoglobin content of the RBC

58

What is typically done when anemia is suspected?

hematocrit

59

What is a hematocrit?

centrifuging whole blood spins the formed elements to the bottom, plasma to the top layer

60

What is coagulation?

blood clotting

61

What is blood clotting?

protective mechanism that minimizes blood loss when blood vessels ruptured

62

What is released first in blood clotting?

tissue factor, TF and PF which trigger the clotting mechanism or cascade

63

What do the TF and PF interact with

clotting factors and calcium ions

64

What do these form?

prothrombin activator

65

What does the prothrobin activator convert>

prothrombin to thrombin

66

What is the function of thrombin?

acts enzymatically to polymerize the soluble fibrinogen proteins into insoluble fibrin

67

What does fibrin form?

the meshwork of strands that traps the RBC and forms the basis of the clot

68

What is the time frame for clotting?

2-6 min

69

What is blood typing?

classifying blood based on specific glycoproteins present on the outer surface of the plasma membrane of RBC

70

What are proteins called on the plasma membrane?

antigens or agglutinogens

71

What are the plasma proteins that accompany the antigens

antibodies

72

What is the major function of the cardiovascular system?

transportation

73

What is the heart?

cone shaped organ approximately the size of a fist

74

Where is the heart located?

in the mediastinum of the medial cavity of the thorax

75

What is the heart flanked by?

the lungs

76

What rests on the diaphragm at the 5th intercostal space

apex

77

what part of the heart lies beneath the second rib and points towards the right shoulder

base where great vessels emerge

78

What is the heart enclosed in by??

pericardium

79

what is the visceral pericardium?

thin epicardium is closely applied to the outer surface of the heart

80

what is the parietal pericardium?

outer, loose layer of dense fibrous connective tissue which anchors to diaphragm

81

What fills between these two membrane layers?

serous fluid

82

What are the walls of the heart composed primarily of?

cardiac muscle, myocardium

83

What are the four chambers of the heart?

two superior atria, two inferior ventricles

84

What lines these chambers?

thing serous membrane endocardium

85

What is the septum that divides the heart longitudinally?

interatial or interventricular septum

86

What type of blood does the right atrium and ventricle receive?

deoxygenated

87

Where does the blood come from into the right side of the heart?

superior and inferior venae cavae

88

What delivers oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium?

pulmonary veins

89

What does the right ventricle pump blood into?

pulmonary trunk

90

What does the pulmonary trunk do?

sends blood to lungs to be oxygenated

91

Where does the left ventricle discharge blood?

aorta

92

What is the aorta?

divides into systemic arteries of the body to supply the body tissues

93

What enforces a one way flow of blood through the heart?

four valves

94

What are the atrioventricular valves?

located between the atrium and ventricle on each side, prevent backflow into the atria when the ventricles are contracting

95

What is the left atrioventricular valves also called?

mitral or bicuspid valve

96

What does the bicuspid valve contain to aid in function?

two cusps, or flaps of endocardium

97

What does the right atrioventricular valve have to aid in function?

3 cusps

98

what is another name for the right atrioventricular valve?

tricuspid valve

99

What anchors the cusps to the ventricular walls?

chordae tendinae, white collagenic cords

100

What is the second set of valves?

pulmonary and aortic semilunar valves

101

What is the function of these valves?

guards the bases of the two large arteries leaving the ventricles.

102

How many cusps are on the semilunar valves?

3 cusps

103

How is the heart a double pump?

right side serves as pulmonary circulation, the left side serves as systemic circulation

104

What is pulmonary circulation?

sends the carbon dioxide rich blood into the lungs to pick up oxygen then back to the heart

105

What is the systemic circulation?

carries oxygen rich blood from the left heart through the body tissues and back to the right heart

106

What is the blood supply of the heart provided by?

right and left coronary arteries

107

Where do the coronary arteries branch from?

the base of the aorta and encircle the heart

108

What do the coronary arteries encircle the heart to?

coronary sulcus

109

What side of the heart does the right coronary artery supply?

posterior surface of the ventricles and the lateral aspect of the right side of the heart

110

How does the right coronary artery supply the heart?

through posterior interventricular and marginal artery branches

111

What side does the left coronary artery supply?

anterior ventricular walls and the laterodorsal part of the left side of the heart

112

How does the left coronary artery supply the heart?

anterior interventrical artery and the circumflex artery

113

What is the myocardium drained by?

cardiac veins

114

Where does the dranined blood enter?

coronary sinus

115

What is the coronary sinus?

a large vessel on the backside of the heart

116

Where does the coronary sinus along with anterior cardiac veins empty?

the right atrium

117

What are auricles?

earlike flaps of tissue projecting from the atrial chambers

118

WHich side of the heart is thicker?

left

119

What is the first branch of the aorta?

brachiocephalic artery

120

What is the ligamentum arteriosum?

a remnant of the ductus arteriosus

121

What does the ductus arteriosus allow in fetuses?

blood to pass directly from the pulmonary trunk to the aorta, bypassing the nonfunctional lungs