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Flashcards in Week 9 Study Cards Deck (179):
1

what is the major role of the respiratory system?

supply the body with the oxygen it needs and dispose of the carbon dioxide

2

What are the four distinct processes that help fulfill function?

pulmonary ventillation
external respiration
transport of respiratory gases
internal respiration

3

What is pulmonary ventilation?

the movement of air into and out of the lungs

4

What is pulmonary ventilation known as more?

breathing

5

What is external respiration?

gas exchanges to and from the pulmonary circuit blood that occur in the lungs

6

Where does external respiration occur?

in the lungs

7

What is transport of respiratory gases

transport of respiratory gases between the lungs and tissue cells of the body using blood as the transport vehicle

8

What is internal respiration

exchange of gases to and from the blood capillaries of the systemic circulation

9

Where does internal respiration occur

systemically

10

What are the upper respiratory system structures

nose, pharynx, larynx

11

Where does air pass into the respiratory tract

nostrils or nares

12

Where does the air enter once it passes through nostrils?

nasal cavity

13

What does the air pass over in the nasal cavity

inferior, superior, middle nasal concae

14

What is the function of the nasal concae

air turbulance, warms and moistens air

15

What is the nasal cavity surrounded by?

paranasal sinuses in the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary

16

What do the paranasal sinuses function as?

resonance chambers in speech

17

What separates the nasal passages and the oral cavity

hard palate anteriorly and soft palate posteriorly

18

Once the air passes the mouth, where does the pass?

pharynx posteriorly

19

What lies posterior to the nasal cavity and is continuous with it

nasopharynx

20

What is the nasopharynx function

serves only as an air passage

21

High on the posterior wall of the nasopharynx is what

phayngeal tonsils

22

What are the pharyngeal tonsils

paired masses of lymphoid tissue

23

What drains into the nasopharynx

pharyngotypanic/ auditory tubes

24

What lies posterior to the oral cavity

oropharynx

25

Where does the oropharynx extend

soft palate to the epiglottis of the larynx inferiorly

26

In oropharynx lateral walls lies what

palatine tonsils

27

What covers the base of the tongue

lingual tonsils

28

What accommodates both ingested food and air

laryngopharynx

29

Where does laryngopharynx exten

larynx into the respiratory and digestive channels

30

What makes up the larynx

nine cartilages that are quite small

31

What is the largest cartilage of the larynx

thyroid cartilage

32

What is the anterior protrusion of the thyroid cartilage

adams apple

33

What is the inferior ring-shaped

cricoid cartilage

34

What type of cartilage are laryngeal cartilages composed of

hyaline cartilage

35

What composes the epiglottis

flaplike elastic cartilage superior to the opening of the larynx

36

What is the function of epiglotis

forms a lid over the larynx when we smallow

37

If anything other than air enters the larynx what occurs

cough reflex

38

The mucous membrane of the laynx is thrown into a pair of folds called what

vocals folds or true vocal cords

39

The passageways between the vocal cords is called what

glottis

40

Where does air enter the lungs

trachea

41

What does the tracea divide into

right and left main, or primary, bronchi

42

What is the trachea lined with

ciliated mucus secreting epithelium

43

What is the function of the cilia

propel mucus loaded with dust particles, bacteria, and other debris away from the lungs

44

What are the wall of the trachea lined with

c shaped cartilages

45

What does the open part of the cartilage allow

expand anteriorly when a large piece of food is swallowed

46

What do the solid portions of the trachea allow

reinforce the trachea walls to keep its passageway open regardless of the pressure changes that occur during breathing

47

Where do the main bronchi plunge into their respective lungs at an indented area called

hilum

48

Inside the lungs the primary bronchi divide further into smaller and smaller branches called

secondary, tertiary

49

What is the smallest branches of the lungs

bronchioles

50

What are the terminal ends of the bronchioles

respiratory bronchioles

51

What is the continuous branching of the respiratory passageways in lungs ofter referred to as

respiratory tree

52

What do the respiratory bronchioles in turn subdivide into

alveolar ducts

53

Where do the alveolar ducts end

alveolar sacs

54

What are the alveolar sacs

alveoli

55

What are alveoli

tiny balloonlike expansions along the alveolar sacs composed of single thin layer of squamous epithelium overlying a wispy connective tissue layer

56

What are the external surfaces of the alveoli covered in

spiderwebbed with pulmonary capillaries

57

Together the alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes form what

respiratory membrane

58

What are the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts, and respiratory bronchioles referred to as

respiratory zone structures

59

What does the mediastinum house

heart, bronchi, esophagus, and other organs

60

What is each lung connected to the mediastinum by

a root containing its vasculr supply and bronchial attachments

61

What is the lungs apex

its narrower superior aspect

62

What is the lungs base

inferior surface rests on diaphragm

63

What divides the lungs into lobes

fissures

64

How lobes are in the left lung

two

65

how many lobes are in the right lung

three

66

What is the main composition of the lungs

elastic connective tissue

67

What is each lung enclosed in by

doule layered serous membrane

68

What is the double layered serous membrane called

pleura

69

What is the outer layer pleura

parietal pleura

70

What is the parietal pleura attached to

thoracic walls and the diaphragm

71

What is the inner layer

visceral pleura

72

What does the visceral pleura cover

covering lung tissue

73

What are the two pleural layers separated by

pleural cavity

74

What are the two phases of Pulmonary ventilation or breathing?

inspiration
expiration

75

What is inspiration?

air is flowing into the lungs

76

What is expiration?

when air passes out of the lungs

77

At normal quiet breathing, how much air moves about in the lung

500 mL

78

What are respiratory volumes measured with

spirometer

79

what is tidal volume

volume of air inhaled and exhales with each normal respiration

80

What is expiratory reserve volume

volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled after a normal exiration ranges 700 and 1200

81

What is vital capacity

total exchangeable air of the lungs

82

What is inspiratory reserve volume

volume of air that can be forcibly inhaled following a normal inspiration

83

What is a pneumograph

an apparatus that records variations in breathing patters and is the best means of observing respiratory variations

84

What system provides the body with the nutrients essential for health

digestive system

85

What are the functions of the organs of this system

ingest, digest, absorb food, eliminate undigested remains

86

What is the main tube of digestive system

alimentary canal

87

How is food broken down

physically and chemically

88

What is the breakdown of food called

digestion

89

The digested end products can then pass through the epithelial cells lining the tract into the blood to be distributed to the body cells in the process calledq

absorption

90

What are the two main groups of organs of the digestive system

alimentary canal (gastrointestinal tract)
accessory digestive organs

91

What are the alimentary canal organs

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, and anus

92

What are the accessory digestive organ

teeth, tongue, salivary glands, gallbladder, liver, pancreas

93

the alimentary canal walls have four what

tunics (layers)

94

What is the innermost layer that lines the alimentary canal lumen

mucosa (mucous membrane)

95

What does the mucosa tunic consist of

surface epithelium, a lamina propria, and a muscularis mucosae

96

What is the major funcion of the mucosa

secretion, absorption of digested foodstuffs, and protection

97

What is the layer superficial to the mucosa

the submucosa

98

What is the submucosa composed of

connective tissue containing blood and lymphatic vessels, scattered lymph nodules and nerve fibers

99

What is the major function of the submucosa

protection

100

What is the intrinsic nerve supply of the submucosa

submucosal plexus

101

What is the third layer of the tube

muscularis externa

102

What composes muscularis externa

bilayer of smooth muscle with the deeper layer running circularly and the superficial running longitudinally

103

What is the smooth muscle of the muscularis controlled by

myenteric plexus

104

What is the outermost layer

serosa

105

What is serosa composed of

visceral peritoneum, single layer of squamous epithelium associated with scanty areolar CT

106

Where does food enter the digestive tract?

mouth or oral cavity

107

What protects the anterior opening of the mouth

lips or labia

108

What forms the lateral walls of the oral cavity

cheeks

109

What forms the roof of the oral cavity

palate

110

What is the anterior portion of the palate called

hard palate

111

What is the posterior portion of the palate called

soft palate

112

Why is the fingerlike projection of the soft palate, extending inferiorly from its posterior edge

uvula

113

What occupies the floor of the oral cavity

tongue

114

What secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth

lingual frenulum

115

What is the space between the lips and cheeks and the teeth

vestibule

116

What is the area that lies within the teeth and gums

oral cavity proper

117

On each side of the mouth at its posterior end are masses of lymphoid tissue called what

palatine tonsils

118

What covers the base on the tongue posterior to the oral cavity proper

lingual tonsil

119

What are three pairs of duct their secretion, saliva, into the oral cavity

salivary glands

120

What begins the digestion of starchy foods in the mouth

salivary amylase

121

What is the sruface of the tongue covered with

papillae

122

From the mouth food passes posteriorly into what

pharynx

123

The pharynx has what three parts

nasophaynx, oropharynx, and laryyngopharnx

124

Where is the naspharynx located

behind nasal cavity

125

Where is oropharynx located

from soft palate to the epiglottis

126

Where is the laryngopharynx located

extends from the epiglottis to the base of the larynx

127

The walls of the pharynx contain two layers of what

skeletal muscle

128

What type of skeletal muscles does it contain

inner longitudinal and outer circular

129

What extends from the pharynx to the diaphragm

esophagus

130

How long is the esophagus

approximately 10 inches

131

What is a thickening of the smooth muscle layer at the esophagus-stomach junction

cardioesophageal sphincter

132

What is on the left side of the abdominal cavity

stomach

133

What are the different regions of the saclike stomach

cardial region, the fundus, the body the pylorus

134

What is the cardial region of the stomach

area surrounding the opening through which food enters the stomach

135

what is the fundus region of the the stomach

expanded portion of the stomach, lateral to the lateral cardiac region

136

What is the body portion of the stomach

midpart of the stomach

137

what is the pylorus region of the stomach

terminal part of the stomach which is continuous with the small intestine through the pyloric sphincter

138

What is the concave medial surface of the stomach

lesser curvature

139

What is the convex lateral surface

greater curvature

140

Two mesenteries extend from these curvatures, what are they

lesser omentum and greater omentum

141

Where does the lesser omentum extend

liver to the lesser curvature

142

where does the greater omentum extend from

greater curvature to the stomach

143

What secretes hydrochloric acid and hydolytic enzymes in the stomach

gastric glands

144

What is a convoluted tube about 2 meters long

small intestine

145

Where does the small intestine extend

pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve

146

What is the small intestine suspended by

fan shaped mesentery

147

What are the three regions of the small intestine

duodenum, jejunum, ileum

148

What is the duodenum

extends from the pyloric sphincter for about 10 inches to head of pancreas

149

What is the jejunum

continues from duodenum and extends about 8 ft

150

What is the ileum

terminal portion of small intestine about 12 ft long and joins with large intestine

151

Where does the ileum join with large intestin

ileocecal valve

152

What are enzymes bound to the microvilli of the colunar epithelial cells

brush border enzymes

153

what are these ezymes ducted through from pancreas to duodenum

pancreatic duct

154

Bile enters the duodenum via

bile duct

155

what do the pancreatic and bile duct join to form what

heptopancreatic ampulla

156

What do they empty their products into

duodenal papilla

157

What are microvilli

minute projections of the surface plasma membrane of the columnar epithelial cells of the mucosa

158

What are cilli

fingerlike projections of the mucosa that give it a velvety appearance

159

What are the deep folds of the mucosal and submucosal layers that force chyme to spiral through the intestine

circular folds

160

What are local collections of lymphoid nodules in the submucosa

peyers patches

161

What extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus

large intestine

162

What are the subdivisions of the large intestine

cecum, appendix, colon, rectum, and anal canal

163

What are the sudivisions of the colon

ascending colon, right colic flexure, transverse colon, left colic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon

164

What terminates the anal canal

anus

165

What are the puckers in the wall of the colon due to muscle bands

haustra

166

What are the three pairs of salivary glands

parotid, submandibular, sublingual

167

What are parotid glands

large glands located anterior to the ear and ducting via the parotid duct into the mouth over the second upper molar

168

What are the submandimular glands

located along the medial aspect of the mandible in the floor of the mouth and ducting under the tongue close to the frenulum

169

What are the sublingual glands

small glands located most anteriorly in the floor of the mouth and emptying under the tongue via several small ducts

170

What enzyme does saliva contian

salivary amylase

171

What is the largest gland in the body

liver

172

What is the liver suspended from the diaphragm by

falciform ligament

173

What is the function of the liver

bile

174

What does the bile leav the liver by

common hepatic duct

175

Where does the bile enter

duodenum via bile duct

176

Where does bile back up when no digestion

cystic duct

177

where does the cystic duct enter

gallbladder

178

What are the special phagocytic cells of liver to remove debris

Kupffer cells

179

What is a soft, triangular gland that extends across the posterior abominal wall from the spleen to the duodenum

pancreas