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Flashcards in FINAL REVIEW Deck (489):
1

What is the study of body structures you can see with the naked eye?

gross anatomy

2

What is the relative standard position for a body

anatomical position

3

What is the anatomical position

body erect, head and toes pointed forward and arms hanging at the sides with palms facing forward

4

What is the anterior body trunk region inferior to the ribs

abdominal

5

what is the anterior surface of the elbow

antecubital

6

the armpit

axillary

7

the arm

brachial

8

the cheek

buccal

9

the wrist

carpal

10

the neck region

cervical

11

the hip

coxal

12

the roundness of the shoulder caused by the underlying deltoid muscle

deltoid

13

the fingers or toes

digital

14

the thigh

femoral

15

the side of the leg

fibular

16

the groin

inguinal

17

the breast

mammary

18

the hand

manus

19

the nose

nasal

20

the mouth

oral

21

the bony eye socket

orbital

22

the anterior knee region

patelar

23

the pelvis region

pelvic

24

the genital region

pubic

25

the region of the breastbone

sternal

26

the ankle

tarsal

27

the chest

thoracic

28

the naval

umbilical

29

the head

cephalic

30

the buttocks or rump

gluteal

31

the area of the back between the ribs and hips. the loin

lumbar

32

the posterior aspect of the head or base of the skull

occipital

33

the area between the hips

sacral

34

the scapula or shoulder blade area

scapular

35

the calf or posterior surface of the leg

sural

36

the area of the spinal column

vertebral

37

above/below

superior/inferior

38

front/back

anterior/posterior

39

toward the midline/ away from the midline

medial/ lateral

40

toward the head/ toward the tail

cephalad/ caudad

41

backside/ belly side

dorsal/ ventral

42

nearer the trunk or attached end/ farther from the trunk or point of attachment

proximal/ distal

43

toward or at body surface/ away from the body surface or more internal

superficial/ deep

44

a plane that runs lengthwise or longitudinally down the length of the body dividing it into right and left parts

saggital plane

45

a plane down the midline separating left and right is

median or midsaggital plane

46

a longitudinal plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts

frontal plane

47

a plane that runs horizontally dividing the body into superior and inferior parts

transverse planes

48

what are transverse planes often called

cross sections

49

what is the cavity that contains the brain within the skull

cranial cavity

50

cavity which runs within the bony vertebral column to protect the spinal cord

spinal cavity

51

cavity that is separated from the rest of the ventral cavity by the muscular diaphragm

thoracic cavity

52

cavity inferior to the diaphragm

abdominopelvic cavity

53

cavity that houses the stomach, intestines, liber and other organs

andominal cavity

54

cavity partially enclosed by the bony pelvis and contains the reproductive organs, bladder, and rectume

pelvic cavity

55

four quadrants of abdominopelvic cavity

upper right, upper left, lower right, lower left

56

9 quadrants of abdominopelvic cavity

right hypo chondriac, epigastric, left hypochondriac
right lumbar, umbilical region, left lumbar
right iliac, hypogastric, left iliac

57

groups of cells that are similar in structure and function are called

tissues

58

four primary types of tissues

epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular

59

tissues are organized into what to perform functions

organs

60

what tissue covers surfaces

epithelial tissues

61

functions of epithelial tissue

protection, absorption, filtration, excretion, secretion, sensory reception

62

5 characteristics of epithelial

1) cells fit closely together to form membranes
2) membranes always have one exposed surface
3) cells are attached/ supported by basement membrane
4) epithelial has no blood supply of own
5) well nourished cells can easily regenerate

63

what is free surface called

apical surface

64

three styles of epithelial shapes

cuboidal, columnar, squamous

65

two types of layers of epithelial

simple, stratified

66

fake stratified

pseudostratified

67

peculiar strtified squamous epithelium formed of rouded or plump cells with the ability to slide over one another to allow the organ to be stretched

transitional epithelium

68

tissue found in all parts of the body and is the most abundant and widely distributed of the tissue type

connective tissue

69

what is connective tissue of bone

osseous tissue

70

connective tissue of ligaments and tendons

dense regular connective tissue

71

nonliving material between the cells

extracellular matrix

72

primary function of extracellular matrix

for the strength associated with connective tissue

73

two components of the extracellular matrix

ground substance and fibers

74

what is the ground substance of extracellular matrix

glycoproteins and large polysaccharide molecules

75

what are the fibers of extracellular matrix

collagenic white, elastic yellow, reticular fine collagenic

76

tissue specialized to contract to produce movement of some body parts

muscle tissue

77

three types of muscle tissue

cardiac, skeletal, smooth

78

the "meat" or flesh of the body is attached to the skeleton, under voluntary control

skeletal muscle

79

found only in the heart, acts as pump, propelling the blood into the blood vessels

cardiac muscle

80

junctions in cardiac muscle

intercalated disks

81

found mainly in the walls of all hollow organs except the heart, no striations, uninucleate spindle shaped cells

smooth muscle

82

tissue composd of two major cell populations

nervous tissue

83

two types of cell populations in nervous tissue

neuroglia and neurons

84

special supporting cell that protect, support, and insulate neurons

neurolglia

85

highly specialized to receive stimuli and to conduct impulses to all parts of the body

neurons

86

what organ system is the skin

integumentary system

87

functions of the skin

protect, insulate, cushions, mini excretory system, metabolic duties, vitamin D synthesis, contains cutaneous sense organs, regulates heat loss from body

88

two distinct regions of the skin

epidermis
dermis

89

epidermis composed of

epithelium

90

dermis composed of

connective tissue

91

immediately deep to dermis is

hypodermis or subucutaneous tissue

92

most epidermal cells are

keratinocytes

93

what do keratinocytes produce

keratin

94

what is keratin

tough fibrous protein that gives epidermis its durability and protective capabilities

95

Deepest layer of epidermis

stratum basale

96

layer above statum basale

stratum spinosum

97

what is stratum basale layer

single row of cells that abuts the dermis, constantly undergoes cell division to produce new cells daily

98

about a quarter of the cells in stratum basale layer are what

melanocytes

99

melanocytes are what

produce melanin that gives skin pigmentation

100

what is stratum spinosum layer

cells appear spiky

101

What is layer above stratum spinosum

stratum granulosum

102

what is stratum granulosum

abundent granules in its cells, in this layer begin to die

103

layer above stratum granulosum

stratum lucidum

104

what is stratum lucidum

thin translucent band of flattened dead keratinocytes

105

what is outermost layer of skin

stratum corneum

106

what is stratum corneum

20-30 cell layers thick and cells are dead and flattened scalelike remnants and are full of keratin

107

two regions of dermis

papillary and reticular

108

what is superficial layer of the dermis

papillary layer

109

what is papillary layer

very uneven and has fingerlike projections from its superior surface

110

fingerlike projections of papillary layer

dermal papillae

111

dermal papillae produce what

fingerprints

112

what are the pain and touch receptors found in papillary layer

meissners corpuscles

113

what is deepest layer of dermis

reticular layer

114

what is contained in reticular layer

sebaceous and sweat glands, pressure receptors (pacinian corpuscles), blood vessels

115

ability to determine which portion of the skin has been touched

tactile localization

116

rate of receptor response slows and our conscious awareness of the stimulus declines or is lost until some type of stimulus changes

adaption

117

two types of cutaneous glands

sebaceous oil glands
sweat glands

118

sebaceous glands are found where

all over the skin except for the palms of the hand and soles of the feet

119

product of sebaceous glands

sebum

120

function of sebum

lubricate the skin and keep soft and moist

121

epithelial openings, the outlets for the sweat glands

pores

122

where are sweat glands found

all over the posy

123

sweat glands produce

clear perspiration, consisting primarily of water, salts, and urea

124

what glands found chiefly in axillary and genital areas

apocrine glands

125

apocrine glands secrete

milky protein and fat-rich substance containing water, salts, and urea

126

hair is found where

all over body except palms of hands, soles of feet, external genitalia, nipples, and lips

127

hair is enclosed in what

hair follicle

128

hair enclosed within the follicle is what

root

129

portion of hair projecting from the skin

shaft

130

base of the follicle

hair bulb

131

small bands of smooth muscle cells that connect each hair follicle to the dermis

arrector pili

132

skeleton is constructed of two supportive tissues

cartilage and bone

133

functions of skeleton

system of levers for muscles to move body
bones store lipids and minerals
provide a site for blood cell formation

134

skeleton has two main subdivision

axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton

135

bone surfaces are not featureless and smooth but are scarred with an array of bumps, holes, ridges called

bone markings

136

two categories of bone markings

projections and depressions

137

what are projections

processes that grow out from the bone and serve as sites of muscle attachment or help form joints

138

what are depressions

indentations or openings in the bone that serve as passageways for nerves and blood vessels

139

total bones in human adult body

206

140

two basic kinds of osseous bone tissue

compact and spongy

141

compact tissue is what

dense and looks smooth and homogeneous

142

spongy tissue is what

composed of small trabeculae of bone and lots of open space

143

Four classifications of bone

long, short, flat, irregular

144

what are long bones

much longer than they are wide and consist of a shaft with heads at either end

145

long bones are typically what tissue

compact

146

what are short bones

typically cube shaped

147

short bones are typically what tissue

more spongy than compact bone

148

what are flat bones

generally thin

149

flat bones are typically what tissue

layer of spongy bone sandwiched between two layers of compact bone

150

what are irregular bones

bones that do not fall into one of previous categories

151

shaft of bone

diaphysis

152

fibrous membrane that covers the bone surface

periosteum

153

fibers of periosteum penetrating into the bone

sharpey's fibers or perforating fibers

154

end of the long bone

epipyshis

155

covers the epiphyseal surface in place of periosteum

articular cartilage

156

function of articular cartilage

provides a smooth surface to prevent friction at joint surfaces

157

a thin area of hyaline cartilage that provides for growth in bone length

epiphyseal plate

158

in adults epiphyseal plate becomes

epiphyseal line

159

central cavity of the shaft is a storage region for

adipose tissue or yellow marrow

160

in the infant, central marrow cavities store what

red marrow

161

in adults what is stored in ephyses

red marrow

162

lining of the medullary cavity

endosteum

163

Central canal runs parallel to long axis of the bone and carries blood vessels and nerves through the bony matrix

central canal

164

chamber in the bone cell

lacunae

165

lacunae houses what

osteocytes

166

lacunae are arranged in circles around central canal called what

lamellae

167

central canal and all the lamellae are referred to as

osteon or Haversian system

168

tiny canals running from a central canal to the lacunae of the first lamella and from lamella to lamella

canalicli

169

canals run into the compact bone and marrow cavity from the periosteum at right angles to the shaft

perforating canals

170

3 parts of the axial skeleton

skull, vertebral column, bony thorax

171

two sets of bones in skull

cranial bones, facial bones

172

anterior portion of cranium, forms the forehead, superior part of the orbit and anterior part of cranial floor

frontal bone

173

posterior and lateral to the frontal bone, forming sides of cranium

parietal bone

174

midline articulation point of the two parietal bones

sagittal suture

175

point where the pareitals meet the frontal bone

coronal suture

176

inferior to the parietal bone on lateral part of the skull

temporal bone

177

point where the temporal bone articulates with the parietal bone

squamous suture

178

a bridgelike projection that joins the zygomatic bone anteriorly

zygomatic process

179

zygomatic process and zygomatic bone form

zygomatic arch

180

canal leading to eardrum

external acoustic meatus

181

needle like projection inferior to external auditory meatus that serves as an attachment point for muscles and ligaments of the neck

styloid

182

rough projection inferior and posterior to external auditory meatus, an attachment site for muscles

mastoid process

183

opening medial to styloid process through which the internal jugular vein and cranial nerves pass

juglar foramen

184

opening medial to styloid process that allows the internal carotid artery to enter the cranial cavity

carotid canal

185

opening on posterior aspect of temporal bone allowing cranial nerves to pass

internal acoustic meatus

186

most posterior bone of cranium, forms the floor and back wall, joins the sphenoid bone anteriorly

occipital bone

187

point of articulation of occipital bone and parietal bones

lambdoid suture

188

large opening in base of occipital that allows the spinal cord to join with the brain

foramen magnum

189

rounded projections lateral to the foramen magnum that articulate with the first cervical vertebrae

occipital condyles

190

bat shaped bone forming a plateu across the width of the skull

sphenoid bone

191

portions of the sphenoid seen exteriorly on the lateral aspect of the skull anterior to the temporal bones. form part of the orbits of the eye

greater wings

192

a saddle shaped region the sphenoid midline which nearly encloses the pituitary gland

sella turcica

193

bat shaped portions of the sphenoid anterior to the sella turcica

lesser wings

194

opening posterior to the sella turcica that allows a branch of cranial nerve to pass

foramen ovale

195

allows the optic nerve to pass

optic canal

196

transmits cranial nerves to the eye

superior orbital fissure

197

vertical projection to which the dura mater attaches

crista galli

198

irregularly shaped bone anterior to the sphenoid, forms the roof of the nasal cavity, upper nasal septum, part of the medial orbit walls

ethmoid bone

199

bony plates lateral to the crista galli through which olfactory fibers pass to the brain from the nasal mucosa

cribriform plates

200

thin delicately coied plates of bone extending medially from the ethmoid into the nasal cavity. the conchae increase the surfae area of the mucosa that covers them

superior and middle nasal conchae

201

form the base for the muscles of the face which allow us to show our feelings and to chew

facial bones

202

lower jawbone, articulates with the temporal bones in the only freely movable joints of the skull

mandible

203

horizaontal portion that forms chin

mandible body

204

vertical extension of the body on either side

ramus mandible

205

superior margin of mandible contains sockets for the lower teeth

alveolar margin

206

two bones fused in a median suture, form the upper jawbone and part of the orbits

maxillae

207

inferior margin contianing sockets in which teet lie

alveolar margin

208

form the anterior hard palate

palatine processes

209

paired bones posterior to the palatine processes, form the posterior hard palate and part of the orbit

palatine bone

210

fingernail sized bones forming a part of the medial orbit walls between the maxilla and the ethmoid

lacrimal bone

211

small rectangular bones forming the bridge of the nose

nasal bone

212

blad shaped bone in median plane of nasal cavity that forms most of the nasal septum

vomer (plow)

213

thin curved bones protruding medially from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity

inferior nasal concae

214

located in the throat above the larynx and is the point of attachment for many tongue and neck muscles

hyoid bone

215

hyoid bone is horseshoe shaped with a body and two pairs of horns called

cornua

216

four skull bones lead into sinuses called

paranasal sunuses

217

function of paranasal sinuses

lighten facial bones and act as resonance chambers for the voice

218

fibrous membranes between the bones of the fetal skull which allow the fetal skull to be compressed slightly during birth and allow for brain growth

fontanels

219

what is the spine

vertebral column

220

consists of how many vertebrae

24

221

of the 24 what are the three types and how many

7 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar

222

individual vertebrae are separated by pads of fibrocartilage that absorb shock while providing the spine flexibility

intervertebral discs

223

part of vertebrae composed of pedicles, laminae, and a spinous process, it represents the junction of all posterior extensions from the vertebral body

vertebral arch

224

opening enclosed by the body and vertebral arch through which the spinal cord passes

vertebral foramen

225

two lateral projections from the vertebral arch

transverse processes

226

single posterior projection from the vertebral arch

spinous process

227

paired projections lateral to the vertebral foramen that enable adjacent vertebre to articulate with one another

superior and inferior articular processes

228

what is c1

atlas

229

what is unique about the atlas

lacks a body and its lateral processes contian large depressions on their superior surfaces that receive the occipital condyles of the skull. allows nodding yes

230

what is c2

axis

231

what is unique about the axis

acts a pivot point for rotation of the atlas above. large vertical process called dens

232

thoracic vertibrae have what unique identifying feature

costal demifacets that articulate with the heads of the corresponding ribs

233

formd from the fusion of five vertebrae, is the posterior border of the pelvis

sacrum

234

remnant of the spinous processes of the fused vertebrae

median sacral crest

235

wingike articulate laterally with the hip bones forming the sacroiliac joints

alae

236

paried _____ are evidence that the sacrum is formed of separate fused vertebrae and serve as passageways for blood vessels and nerves

sacral foramina

237

vertebral canal continues in sacrum as

sacral canal

238

vertebral canal terminates near the coccyx in the

sacral hiatus

239

is composed of the sternum ribs and thoracic vertebrae

bony thorax

240

bony thorax is also referred to as

thoracic cage

241

a typical flat bone is a result of the fusion of three bones

sternum

242

three bones of sterunum tope to bottom

manubriem, body, xiphoid process

243

looks like the knot of a tie

manubrium

244

sternum attaches to how many ribs

first 7

245

forms most of hte sternum

body

246

inferior end of the sternum

xiphoid process

247

forms the walls of the thoracic cage

twelve pairs of ribs

248

first 7 pairs of ribs are called

true ribs

249

true ribs are what

directly attach to the sternum by their own costal cartilages

250

next 5 pairs are called

false ribs

251

numbers 8-10 are what type of false rib

indirect cartilage attachments to the sternum

252

11-12 are what type of false ribs

floating ribs and have no sternal attachment

253

is composed of the 126 bones of the appendages and the pectoral and pelvic girdles which attach limbs to the axial skeleton

appendicular skeleton

254

each consist of two bones- a clavical and a scapula

pectoral or shoulder girdles

255

what do shoulder girdles anchor

upper limbs to the axial skeleon and provide attachment points for many trunk and neck muscles

256

slender, doubly curved bone, convex forward medially and concave forward laterally

clavicle

257

medial end of clavicle attaches to what

sternal manubrium

258

lateral end of clavicle attaches to what

flattened where is articulates with the scapula to form part of the shoulder joint

259

generally triabgular, flattened body and two oportant processes

scapulae

260

two processes of scapula

acromion and coracoid process

261

enlarged end of the spine of the scapula

acromion

262

beaklike pointing over the tip of the shoulder joint

coracoid process

263

three angles of the scapula

superior inferior and lateral

264

three named borners

superior medial and lateral

265

a shallow soket that receives the head of the arm bone, is located in the lateral angle

glenoid cavity

266

single bone of the arm

humerus

267

two prominances on the humerus that are separated by a groove and guides the tendon of the biceps muscle to its point of attachment

greater and lesser tubercles

268

groove separating greater and lesser tubercles

intertubercular sulcas

269

roughedned area midshaft of the humerus

deltoid tuberosity

270

function for deltoid tuberosity

attachment site for deltoid

271

articulates with the ulna, distal end of the humerus, looks like spool

trochlea

272

articulates with the radius of the forearm

capitulum

273

condyles are flanked medially and lateraly by

epicondyles

274

above the trochlea is

coronoid fossa

275

on the posterior surface of humerus on distal end is

olecranon fossa

276

coronoid fossa and olecranon fossa ufunction

corresponding processes of the ulna to move freely when the elbow is flexed and extended

277

two bones of forearm

ulna and radius

278

which bone is in lateral position

radius

279

radius and ulna are joined along length by

interosseous membrane

280

medially just below the head is an area where the tendon of the biceps muscle of the arm attaches

radial tuberosity

281

medial bone of the forearm

ulna

282

proximal end of ulna bears the anterior

coronoid process

283

the proximal end of ulna bears the posterior

olecranon process

284

coronoid and olecranon process are separated by

trochlear notch

285

the slimmer distal end bears a small medial notch which anchors some ligaments of the wrist

syloid process

286

seleton of the hand includes what three groups of bones

carpals, metacarpals, phalanges

287

proximal portion of the hand

carpus

288

the 8 bones of the carpus

carpals

289

bones that radiate out from the wrist like spokes to form the palm of the hand

metacarpals

290

14 bones of the fingers are called

phalanges

291

pelvic girdle is formed by two what

coxal hip bones

292

two coxal bones, sacrum, and coccyx form

bony pelvis

293

coxal bone is fusion of what three bones

ilium, ichium, pubis

294

large flaring bone that forms most of coxal bone

ilium

295

ilium connects posterioly with sacrum at

sacroiliac joint

296

superior margin of the iliac bone

iliac crest

297

iliac crest terminates anterioly in the

anterior superior iliac spine

298

iliac crest terminates posteriorly in the

posterior superior iliac spine

299

forms the inferior portion of the coxal bone

ischium

300

receives the weight of the body when we sit

ischial tuberosity

301

superior to the ischial tuberosity is this important anatomincal landmark

ischial spine

302

allows the hugh sciatic nerve to pass to and from the thigh

greater sciatic notch

303

is the most anterior part of the coxal bone

pubis

304

fusion of the rami of the pubic bone anteriorly and the ischium posterioly forms a bar of bone enclosing the

obturator foramen

305

what runs through the obturator foramen

small blood vessels and nerves

306

two pubic bones meet to form

pubic symphysis

307

deep hemispherical socket call where femur joins

acetabulum

308

superior portion bounded by the ilia laterally and the sacrum and lumbar vertebrae posterioly

false pelvis

309

inferior region that is almost entirely surround by bone, its posterior boundary is the sacrum

true pelvis

310

superior most margin of the true pelvis

pelvic inlet or pelvic brim

311

is the iferior margin of the true pelvis

pelvic outlet

312

thigh bone

femur

313

junction of the shaft and neck

greater and lesser trochanters

314

greater and lesser trochanters separated by groove

intertrochanteric crest

315

area located on the shaft for muscle attachment

gluteal tuberosity

316

distally the femur terminates in the

lateral and medial condyles

317

two bones form the leg

tibia and fibula

318

tibia and fibula are joined together by

interosseous membrane

319

shinbone

tibia

320

at the proximal end of tibia are

mdial and lateral condyles

321

medial and lateral condyles separated by

intercondylar eminence

322

roughed protrusion on the anterior tibial surface, attachment site for the patellar ligament

tibial tuberosity

323

tibia articulates with the talus bone of the foot and a process called

medial malleolus

324

sharpened crest of the tibia

anterior border

325

head of fibula articulates with

lateral condyle of the tibia

326

fibula terminates with

lateral malleolus

327

bones of the foot 3 types

7 tarsal
5 metatarsal
14 phalanges

328

what are two functions of joints or articulations

1) hold bones together
2) allow skeleton flexibility

329

structural classifications (3)

fibrous
cartilaginous
synovil joints

330

functional classifications 3

synarthroses
amphiarthroses
diarthroses

331

synarthroses are what type

immovable

332

amphiarthroses are what type

slightly movable

333

diarthroses are what type

freely movable joints

334

bones joined by fibrous tissue

fibrous joints

335

type of movement of fibrous joints

virtually no movement

336

two types of fibrous joints

sutures and syndesmoses

337

sutures are what

irregular edges of the bones interlock and are united by short connective tissue fibers

338

what is syndesmoses

articulating bones are connected by short ligaments of dense fibrous tissue, the bones do not interlock

339

bones ends are connected by cartilage

cartilaginous joints

340

type of cartilaginous joint movements

slightly movable

341

important type of cartilaginous joint

symphysis

342

symphysis joint is what

connected by a broad flat disc of fibrocartilage

343

bone ends separate dby a joint cavity contianing synovial fluid

synovia joints

344

type of movement in synovial joints

freely movable

345

structural characteristics of synovial joints 5

1)joint surfaces are enclosed by a two-layered articular capsule
2) outer part of capsule is dense CT while inside is lines with smooth CT which produces synovial fluid
3)articulating surfaces of the bones are covered with hyaline cartilage
articular capsule is reinforced with ligaments and may contain bursae

346

three types of range of motion of synovial joints

uniaxial, biaxial, multiaxial

347

articulating surfaces are flat of slightly curved in one or two planes

plane

348

rounded process of one bone fits into the concave surface of another to allow movement in one plane

hinge

349

rounded or conical surface of one bone articulates with a shallow depression or forament in another bone

pivot

350

oval vondyle of bone fits into an oval depression in another bone

condyloid

351

articulating surfaces are saddle shaped

saddle

352

the ball shaped head of one bone fits into a cuplike depression of another

ball and socket

353

KNOW TYPES OF MOVEMENT

flexion
extension
rotation
abduction
adduction
circumduction
dorsiflexion
plantar flexion
inversion
eversion
pronation
supination

354

the bulk of the bodys muscle

skeletal muscle

355

when nuclei are pushed to the side longitudinally

myofibrils

356

smaller threadlike structures that make up myofibirls

myofilaments

357

myofilaments are composed of two proteins

actin and myosin

358

contractile unit of muscle

sarcomers

359

each muscle is composed in a delicate connective tissue sheath called

endomysium

360

several sheathed muscle fibers are wrapped by a collagenic membrane called

perimysium

361

perimysium wrapped fiber bundles are called

fascicles

362

large number of fascicles are bound by what

epimysium

363

epimysia belind into strong cordlike tendons called

aponeuroses

364

muscle more movable attachment is called

insertion

365

muscle fixed point

origin

366

junvtion between a nerve fiber and a muscle cells is

neuromuscular or myonerural juncion

367

motor axon breaks into many branches called

axon terminals

368

a neruron and all the muscle cells it stimulate make up the functional structure called

motor unit

369

neuron and muscle fibers are separated by a small fluid filled gap called

synaptic celft

370

three directional names of muscles

rectus, transvers, oblique

371

relative size of the muscle names

maximus, mminimus, longus, brevis

372

location of the muscle

named for bone it overlies

373

number of origins

biceps, triceps, quadriceps

374

location of muscles origin and insertion

ex ) sternoclastinoid

375

shape of the muscle

deltoid= triangular
trapezius=trapezoid

376

action of the muscle

prime movers or agonists, or antagonists, synergists, fixators

377

muscles primarily responsible for producing a particular movement

prime movers

378

muscles that oppose or reverse a movement

antagonists

379

aid the action of prime moveres by reducing undesirable or unnecessary movement

synergists

380

specialized synergists that immovilize the origin of a prime mover so that all the tension is exerted at the insertion

fixators

381

KNOW ALL THE MUSCLES

BECAUSE ITS IMPORTANT

382

two major cell of nervous tissue

neurons and supporting cells

383

another name for supporting cells

microglia ofr glial cells

384

specialized to transmit messages from one part of the body to another

neurons

385

structure parts of a neuron

cell body, fibers, nuclei

386

clusters of neuron cell bodies outside the CNS

ganglia

387

neuron processes orunning through the CNS form what

tracts of white matter

388

neurone processes running through the PNS form what

peripheral nerves

389

neuron processes that conduct electrical currents toward the cell body

dendrites

390

neuron procces that carry eectrical impuslses away from the cell body

axons

391

area of neuron where neurotransmitters are stored

axon terminals

392

each axon terminal is separated from the cell body of the next neuron by a tiny gap called

synaptic cleft

393

most long nerve fibers are covered with a fatty material called

myelin

394

myelin covered fibers are called

myelinated fibers

395

axons in the peripheral nervous system are myelinated by special supporting cells called

schwann cells

396

schwann cells wrap around fiber to form

myelin sheath

397

part of the schwann cell external to the myelin sheath is referred to as

neurorilemma

398

gaps between teh schwann cells are

nodes of ranvier

399

neuron with one verys short process which divides into distal and proximal

uniplar neurons

400

neuron has two processes one axon and one dendrite attached to cell body

bipolar neuron

401

neuron where many processes issue from cell bondy and one is single axon

multipolar neurons

402

neurons carrying impulses from the sensory receptors are called

sensory or afferent neurons

403

neurons carrying activating impuses from CNS are called

motor neurons or efferent

404

third functional category of neurons is

interneurons or association neurons

405

within a nerve each fiber is surrounded by a delicate connective tissue sheath called

endoneurium

406

groups of fibers are bound by what to form bundles

perineurium

407

what are the bundles called

fascicles

408

what are all fascicles bound by

epineurium

409

nerves carrying both sensory and motor fibers are

mixed nerves

410

two divisions of the nervous system

central nervous system
peripheral nervus system

411

central nervous system composed of

brain and spinal cord

412

peripheral nercous system

cranial and spinal nerves, ganglia, sensory receptors

413

most superior part of the brain

cerebral hemisphers

414

elevated ridges of the brain

gyri

415

depressed areas of the brain

fissues or sulci

416

cerebral hemisphers divided in half by

longitudinal fissure

417

line dividing frontal lobe from parietal lobe

central sulvus

418

separates temporal lobe from the paretal lobe

lateral sulcus

419

divides the occipital lobe from the parietal love

parietoocipital sulcus

420

anterior to the primary motor area

premotor area

421

region that stores the instructions for seqences of mtor activity

premotor area

422

motor speech area found at the base of the primary motor area

brocas area

423

outermost gray matter of the cerebrum

cerebral cortex

424

most of the balance of cerebral tissue consists of fibers tracts carrying impulses to or from the cortex

cerebral white matter

425

most superior portion of the brain stem

diencephalon

426

consists primarily of motor and sensory fiber tracts connecting the brain with lwer CNS centers

pons

427

lowest brain stem region

medulla oblongata

428

large cauliflowerlike projection dorsally from under the occipital lobe of the cerbrum

cerebellum

429

two superior prominence are visual reflex centers while the two inferior are audiotry reflex centers

corpora quadrigemina

430

major fiber tract connnecting the cerebral hemispheres

corpus callosum

431

buried deep within the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres are several islands of gray matter called

nuclei

432

helps regulate voluntary motor activities, important nuclei

basal nuclei

433

consists of two large lobes of gray matter that laterally enclose the shallow third ventricle of the brain

thalamus

434

a stalk of thalamic tissue that connects the two lobes and spans the ventricle

intermediate mass

435

makes up the floor of the third ventricle

hypothalamus

436

hangs from the floor of the hypothalamus by a slender stalk

pituitary gland

437

bylges exteriorly from the floor of the hypothalamus ust posterior to the pituitary gland

mammillary bodies

438

form the rood of the third ventricle

epithalamus

439

capillary knots within each ventricle form cerbrospinal fluid

choioid plexus

440

slender canal traveling through the mdibrain

cerebral aqueduct

441

treelike branching of the cerebellar white matter is called

arbor viae

442

brain is covered and protected by three connective tissue membranes called

meninges

443

outermost membrane is leathry double layered

dura mater

444

one or the layers of the dura mater attached to the inner surface of the skull

periosteal layer

445

one layer of the dura mater covering outermost brain

meningeal layer

446

dips into the longitudinal fissure toa ttach to the crista gallie

falx cerebri

447

cavity createrd at the falx cerebri is the

superior sagittal sius

448

what is middle meninge

arachnoid mater

449

arachnoid mater underlies the dura mater is is partially separated by what

subdural space

450

innermost meninge membrane

pia mater

451

specialized projections of the arachnoid tissue protrude through tehdura mater to allow cerbrosppinal fluid to dran back into the venous blood

arachnoid villi

452

cerebrospinal fluid is flormed by

choroid plexuses

453

collection of spinal nerves at the inferior end of the vertebral canal is called

cauda equina

454

cross sectiion of the spinal cord that looks like a butterfly

gray matter

455

two posterior projectios of the butterfly

dorsal horns

456

two broader anterior projections

ventral horns

457

in thoracic an dlumbar regions there is later gray matter referred to as

lateral horn

458

central area of gray matter

central canal

459

dorsal orns contain association neurons and sensory fibers that enter the cord via the

dorsa root

460

cell bodies of these sensory neurons are found in enlarged area of the dorsal root called

dorsal root ganglion

461

ventral horns contian cell bodies of morot neurons of the somatic nerous system which send their axons out via the

ventral root

462

the dorsal and ventral roots fuse to form

the spinal nerves

463

part of spinal cord composed of myelinated fibers most running to or from higher centers

white matter

464

three regions of the white matter

posterior, lateral, anterior columns

465

white column contains a number of fiber ________ composed of axons with the same origin, destination, and function

tracts

466

almost timmediately after emergioing each nerve divides into

dorsa and ventral rami

467

the ventral rami of spinal nerves T2-T12 pass anteriorly as

intercostal nerves

468

the ventral rami of all other spinal nerves form complex nerve networks called

plexuses

469

arises from the ventral rami of C1 through C5 and supplies muscles of the shoulder and neck

cervical plexus

470

major motor brand of cervical plexus is

phrenic nerve

471

arising from the ventral rami of C5 through C8 and T1 is

brachial plexus

472

brachial plexus divided into 5 major peripheral nerves

radial, median, axillary, musculocutaneous, ulnar

473

arises from ventral rami of L1 through L4

lumbar plexus

474

largest nerve of lumbar plexus

femoral nerve

475

arises from L4 through S4

sacral plexus

476

major peripheral nerve of the sacral plexus

sciatic nerve

477

the sciatic nerve divides into two nerves in the popliteal region

common fibular nerve and tibial nerve

478

reflexes are rapid, predictable, involuntary motor responses to stimuli and occur over neural pathways called

reflex arcs

479

reflexes not subject to conscious control

autonomic reflexes

480

reflexes that stimulate skeletal muscles

somatic reflexes

481

5 steps of reflex arc

receptor reacts to stimulus
sensory neuron conducts afferent impuls to CNS
integration center consists of one or more synapse
motor neuron conducts efferent impuls to effector
effector muscle or gland responds

482

two neuron reflex arc

monosynaptic

483

one or more neurons in the rele arc

polysynaptic

484

used to describe the point of close contact between the neurons or a neuron and an effector cell

synaspe

485

important postural reflexes that act to maintain posture, balance, and locomotion

stretch reflexes

486

intiated by stimulation of receptors in the ski and mucosae

superficial cord reflexes

487

consensual reflex

sensed on one side and not the other

488

other side has been stimulated

contralateral response

489

occuring on the same side stimulated and not the other

ipsilateral response