Flashcards in Week 3 Study Cards Deck (170):
How many bones compose the appendicular skeleton?
What are the paired pectoral girdles?
How many bones make up the pectoral girdles?
What are the two bones that make up the pectoral girdles?
clavicle and scapula
What is the function of the shoulder girdles?
anchor upper limbs to axial skeleton and provide attachment points for trunk and neck muscles
What is the clavicle?
What kind of structure is the clavicle?
slender, doubly curved bone, convex forward medially and concave forward laterally
Where does the clavicle attach on the medial end?
the manubrium of sternum
Where does the clavicle attach on the lateral end?
it flattens to articulate with the scapula and form part of the shoulder
What is the function of the clavicle?
to serve as a brace when extending arm forward from body
What are the scapulae?
What shape do scapulae have?
The scapulae have what structure?
a flat body, 2 important processes
What are the two processes of the scapulae?
What is the acromion process?
enlarged end of the spine of the scapula, large rounded protrusion that can be easily seen from the posterior side
What is the coracoid process?
The bony protrusion that points anteriorly over the tip of the shoulder joint and anchors some of the upper limb muscles
Is the scapula directly attached to the axial skeleton?
What holds the scapula in place?
suspended loosely by trunk muscles
What are the names of the three angles and three named borders?
superior, (inferior for angles) medial, lateral
What is the glenoid cavity?
a shallow socket that receives the head of the arm bone, located lateral angle.
What is the long bone on the posterior side of the scapula that connects with the acromion process?
spine of the scapula
The arm is made up of what single bone?
Where does the humerus attach to the body?
head fits into glenoid cavity of scapula
What are two prominences of the humerus near the head?
(from lateral to medial aspect)
How are the greater and lesser tubucle separated?
the intertubercular sulcus (a groove)
What is the function of the inter tubercular sulcus?
guides the tendon of the biceps muscle to its point of attachment of the superior rim of the glenoid cavity
What is the deltoid tuberosity?
allows attachment for the deltoid muscles of the shoulder
Where is the deltoid tuberosity located?
mid shaft, roughened area, protruding, outer portion of bone
What is the bony stucture at the distal end of the humerus?
What do medial trochlea look like?
What is the function of the medial trochlea?
to articulate with the ulna
What is the lateral capitulum?
bony projection at distal end of the humurus
What is the function of the lateral capitulum?
to articulate with the radius of the forearm
What are the medial trochlea and lateral capitulum flanked by?
the medial epicondyle
What structure is above the trochlea?
What structure is above the trochlea but on the posterior side?
What is the function of the coronoid fossa and olecranon fossa?
to allow the corresponding processes of the ulna to move freely when the elbow is flexed and extended
How many bones make up the forearm?
What are the two bones that make up the forearm?
In the anatomical position which bone is in the lateral position?
What joins the radius and ulna by length?
What finger does the ulna coordinate with?
What finger does the radius coordinate with?
Where does the disk head shape of the radius correspond with the humerus?
capitulum of humerus
What is medial below the head of the radius?
What is the radial tuberosity?
rounded, bony protrusion that points in towards the ulna
What is the function of the radial tuberosity?
where the tendon of the biceps muscle of the arm attaches
What is the medial bone of the forearm?
ulna (REMEMBER ANATOMICAL POSITION)
The proximal end of the ulna bears what process?
The posterior side of the proximal end of the ulna bears what process?
Together, the coronoid and olecranon process do what function?
grip the trochlea of the humerus in a plierslike joint
The distal end of the ulna contains what bony protrusion?
styloid process, which anchors some ligaments of the wrist
What separates the coronoid and olecranon processes?
The skeleton of the hand includes what three groups of bones?
What is the carpus?
What are the eight bones of the wrist called?
What are the bones of the palm called?
What are the bones of the digits of the hand?
What is the singular form of phalanges?
How are the fingers numbered?
1-5 starting at the thumb and going to the pinky
What is the pelvic girdle?
forms the hip
What makes up the bony pelvis?
two coxal bones, sacrum, coccyx
What are coxal bones?
How are the bones of the pelvic girdle different from the shoulder girdle?
heavy, massive, attach securely to the axial skeleton
How many bones make up the coxal bone?
What are the three bones fused together to make the coxal bone?
ilium, ischium, pubis
What is the ilium bone?
The large flaring bone, forms most of the coxal bone, most superior bone
What does the ilium bone connect to?
How do the ilium bone and sacrum bone connect?
What is the superior margin of the ilium bone?
Where does the iliac crest terminate?
anteriorly in the anterior superior iliac spine and posteriorly in the posterior superior iliac spine
What bone forms the inferior portion of the coxal bone?
What part of the ischium receives the weight when we sit down?
What is an important anatomical landmark of the pelvic cavity?
What is the structure of the ischial tuberosity in identifying it?
The bone near the rounded open hole in the bone
What is the structure of the ichial spine?
Small bony protrusion just inferior to the greater sciatic notch
What is the greater sciatic notch?
a curve in the bone that allows the sciatic nerves to pass through
What is the most anterior part of the coxal bone?
Fusion of what part of the pubis bone and the ischium form part of the obturator foramen
What is the obturator foramen?
place where blood vessels and nerves run into the thigh
Where do the two bones meet (rami and ischium)
pubic symposis joint
The ilium, ischium, and pubis unit to form a socket called what?
What is the function of the acetaculum?
to receive head of thigh bone (femur)
What is the false pelvis?
the superior portion bounded by the ilia laterally and the sacrum and lumbar vertebrae posteriorly
What is the true pelvis?
inferior region that is almost entirely surrounded by bone
What is the superiormost margin of the true pelvis?
pelvic inlet or brim
What is the inferior margin of the true pelvis?
What is the thigh bone?
What makes the femur unique from all other bones of the body?
strongest, heaviest, longest
How is the head of the femur different from most of the other bones?
carried on a neck
What features of the femur are located at the junction of the shaft and neck?
greater and lesser trochanters
How are the greater and lesser trochanters separated?
posteriorly by the intertrochanteric crest
The trochanters and trochanteric crest serve as what function?
place for muscles to attach
What is the gluteal tuberosity?
protrusions on the posterior portion of the bone
Where does the femur terminate?
medial and lateral condyles located on distal end of bone
What is the function of the condyles?
articulate with tibia below
What is the deep groove between the condyles?
intercondylar notch or fossa
How many bones form the leg?
What are the two bones that form the leg?
What connects the tibia and fibula?
What is the shin bone?
Which of the leg bones is bigger and wider?
What is at the proximal end of the tibia?
medial and lateral condyles
What separates the condyles of the tibia?
What is the tibial tuberosity?
a roughened protrusion on the anterior tibial surface
What is the tibial tuberosity's function
attachment of patellar ligaments
What bone does the tibia articulate with in the foot?
What is the process that forms the inner bulge of the ankle?
What is the anterior border?
sharpened crest of the tibia unprotected by muscles
What bone lies parallel to the tibia?
Does the fibula attach to knee joint?
Where does the fibula terminate?
distal end at lateral malleolus
What does the lateral malleolus form?
lateral bulge of the ankle
What bones does the foot include?
tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges
What are the tarsals?
seven bones forming the ankle
What are the metatarsals?
form the sole
What are the phalanges?
Where is body weight concentrated on in the foot area?
calcaneus (heel bone)
talus (bone between tibia and calcaneus)
How are toes numbered?
1-5 starting at the tiniest toe
What are the functions of joints?
1) hold bones together
2) allow the rigid structure some flexibility
What is another name for joints?
What are the two ways joints can be classified?
structure or function
What is structural classification based on?
what separates articulating bones
What are the structural classifications?
fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial
What does functional classification based on?
amount of movement the joint allows
What are immovable joints?
What are joints that slightly move?
What are freely movable joints?
Where do freely movable joints predominate?
Where are immovable and slightly movable joints located?
What are fibrous joints?
bones are joined by fibrous tissue
Do fibrous joints allow a lot of movement?
some do but most do not
What are the two major types of fibrous joints?
What are sutures?
irregular edges of the ones that interlock and are united by short fibrous fibers
What are syndesmoses?
articulating bones are connected by short ligaments of dense fibrous tissue, bones do not interlock
What are cartilaginous joints?
articulating bone ends are connected by cartilage
What is the movement of cartilaginous joints?
What is an important cartilage?
What is symphasis?
bones are connect by a broad flat disc of fibrocartilage
What are synovial joints?
articulating bone ends are separated by a joint cavity filled with synovial fluid
What is the mobility of synovial joints?
freely movable joints
What are some synovial joints structural characteristics?
1) enclosed by two-layered articular capsule creating joint cavity
2)outer part of capsule is dense fibrous connective tissue lined with smooth connective tissue called synovial membrane
3)Articulating surfaces of bones are covered in articular cartilage
4) articular capsule is reinforced with ligaments and may contain bursae, tendons sheaths
Synovial joints are divided into further categories how?
on the basis of movements they allow
What is uniaxial movement?
movement in one plane
What is biaxial movement?
movement in two planes
What is multiaxial movement?
movement in or around all three places of space
What is a plane?
articulating surfaces are flat, allowing sliding movement in one or two planes
What are hinge joints?
rounded process process of one bone fits into the concave surface of another to allow movement in one plane
What are pivot joints?
Rounded or conical surface of one bone articulates with the shallow depression or foramen of another
What are condyloid joints?
oval condyle of one bone fits into an oval depression in another allowing biaxial movement
What are saddle joints?
articulating surfaces are saddle shaped. one bone is covex the other in concave. biaxial
What are ball and socket joints?
ball shaped head of one bone fits into a cuplike depression of another allowing multiaxial movement
Every muscle is attached to the bone in what two points?
What is the origin?
stationary, immovable attachment
What is the insertion?
the movable part
What is the movement of flexion?
decreases the angle of the joint and reduces the distance between two bones
What is the movement of extension?
increases the angle of a joint and the distance between two bones
What is hyperextension?
When angle is beyond 180 degrees
What is rotation?
movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis
What is abduction?
movement of a limb away from the midline or median plane of the body
What is circumduction?
combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction
What is adduction?
movement of a limb toward the midline of a body
What is dorsiflexion?
occurs at joint, movement of andle joint in a dorsal direction (standing on ones heals)
What is plantar flexion?
occurs at joint, movement of the ankle joint in which foot is flexed downward (standing on ones toes)
What is inversion?
movement that results in the medial turning of the sole of the foot, occurs at joint
What is eversion?
occurs at joint, a movement that results in the lateral turning of the sole of the foot, opposite of inversion
What is pronation?
occurs at joint, palm of hand from anterior to a posterior position. Radius and ulna end form X
What is supination?
movement of the pam from a posterior to anterior position
What is a sprain?
ligaments are damaged by exessive stretching