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Flashcards in Week 3 Study Cards Deck (170):
1

How many bones compose the appendicular skeleton?

126

2

What are the paired pectoral girdles?

shoulder bones

3

How many bones make up the pectoral girdles?

2

4

What are the two bones that make up the pectoral girdles?

clavicle and scapula

5

What is the function of the shoulder girdles?

anchor upper limbs to axial skeleton and provide attachment points for trunk and neck muscles

6

What is the clavicle?

collarbone

7

What kind of structure is the clavicle?

slender, doubly curved bone, convex forward medially and concave forward laterally

8

Where does the clavicle attach on the medial end?

the manubrium of sternum

9

Where does the clavicle attach on the lateral end?

it flattens to articulate with the scapula and form part of the shoulder

10

What is the function of the clavicle?

to serve as a brace when extending arm forward from body

11

What are the scapulae?

shoulder blades

12

What shape do scapulae have?

triangular

13

The scapulae have what structure?

a flat body, 2 important processes

14

What are the two processes of the scapulae?

acromion
coracoid process

15

What is the acromion process?

enlarged end of the spine of the scapula, large rounded protrusion that can be easily seen from the posterior side

16

What is the coracoid process?

The bony protrusion that points anteriorly over the tip of the shoulder joint and anchors some of the upper limb muscles

17

Is the scapula directly attached to the axial skeleton?

no

18

What holds the scapula in place?

suspended loosely by trunk muscles

19

What are the names of the three angles and three named borders?

superior, (inferior for angles) medial, lateral

20

What is the glenoid cavity?

a shallow socket that receives the head of the arm bone, located lateral angle.

21

What is the long bone on the posterior side of the scapula that connects with the acromion process?

spine of the scapula

22

The arm is made up of what single bone?

humerus

23

Where does the humerus attach to the body?

head fits into glenoid cavity of scapula

24

What are two prominences of the humerus near the head?

greater tubercle
lesser tubercle
(from lateral to medial aspect)

25

How are the greater and lesser tubucle separated?

the intertubercular sulcus (a groove)

26

What is the function of the inter tubercular sulcus?

guides the tendon of the biceps muscle to its point of attachment of the superior rim of the glenoid cavity

27

What is the deltoid tuberosity?

allows attachment for the deltoid muscles of the shoulder

28

Where is the deltoid tuberosity located?

mid shaft, roughened area, protruding, outer portion of bone

29

What is the bony stucture at the distal end of the humerus?

medial trochlea

30

What do medial trochlea look like?

spool

31

What is the function of the medial trochlea?

to articulate with the ulna

32

What is the lateral capitulum?

bony projection at distal end of the humurus

33

What is the function of the lateral capitulum?

to articulate with the radius of the forearm

34

What are the medial trochlea and lateral capitulum flanked by?

the medial epicondyle

35

What structure is above the trochlea?

coronoid fossa

36

What structure is above the trochlea but on the posterior side?

olecranon fossa

37

What is the function of the coronoid fossa and olecranon fossa?

to allow the corresponding processes of the ulna to move freely when the elbow is flexed and extended

38

How many bones make up the forearm?

two bones

39

What are the two bones that make up the forearm?

ulna, radius

40

In the anatomical position which bone is in the lateral position?

radius

41

What joins the radius and ulna by length?

interosseous membrane

42

What finger does the ulna coordinate with?

pinky

43

What finger does the radius coordinate with?

thumb

44

Where does the disk head shape of the radius correspond with the humerus?

capitulum of humerus

45

What is medial below the head of the radius?

radial tuberosity

46

What is the radial tuberosity?

rounded, bony protrusion that points in towards the ulna

47

What is the function of the radial tuberosity?

where the tendon of the biceps muscle of the arm attaches

48

What is the medial bone of the forearm?

ulna (REMEMBER ANATOMICAL POSITION)

49

The proximal end of the ulna bears what process?

coronoid process

50

The posterior side of the proximal end of the ulna bears what process?

olecranon process

51

Together, the coronoid and olecranon process do what function?

grip the trochlea of the humerus in a plierslike joint

52

The distal end of the ulna contains what bony protrusion?

styloid process, which anchors some ligaments of the wrist

53

What separates the coronoid and olecranon processes?

trochlear notch

54

The skeleton of the hand includes what three groups of bones?

carpals
metacarpals
phalanges

55

What is the carpus?

the wrist

56

What are the eight bones of the wrist called?

carpals

57

What are the bones of the palm called?

metacarpals

58

What are the bones of the digits of the hand?

phalanges

59

What is the singular form of phalanges?

phalanx

60

How are the fingers numbered?

1-5 starting at the thumb and going to the pinky

61

What is the pelvic girdle?

forms the hip

62

What makes up the bony pelvis?

two coxal bones, sacrum, coccyx

63

What are coxal bones?

hip bones

64

How are the bones of the pelvic girdle different from the shoulder girdle?

heavy, massive, attach securely to the axial skeleton

65

How many bones make up the coxal bone?

3 bones

66

What are the three bones fused together to make the coxal bone?

ilium, ischium, pubis

67

What is the ilium bone?

The large flaring bone, forms most of the coxal bone, most superior bone

68

What does the ilium bone connect to?

sacrum

69

How do the ilium bone and sacrum bone connect?

sacroiliac joints

70

What is the superior margin of the ilium bone?

iliac crest

71

Where does the iliac crest terminate?

anteriorly in the anterior superior iliac spine and posteriorly in the posterior superior iliac spine

72

What bone forms the inferior portion of the coxal bone?

ischium

73

What part of the ischium receives the weight when we sit down?

ischial tuberosity

74

What is an important anatomical landmark of the pelvic cavity?

ichial spine

75

What is the structure of the ischial tuberosity in identifying it?

The bone near the rounded open hole in the bone

76

What is the structure of the ichial spine?

Small bony protrusion just inferior to the greater sciatic notch

77

What is the greater sciatic notch?

a curve in the bone that allows the sciatic nerves to pass through

78

What is the most anterior part of the coxal bone?

pubis

79

Fusion of what part of the pubis bone and the ischium form part of the obturator foramen

rami

80

What is the obturator foramen?

place where blood vessels and nerves run into the thigh

81

Where do the two bones meet (rami and ischium)

pubic symposis joint

82

The ilium, ischium, and pubis unit to form a socket called what?

acetabulum

83

What is the function of the acetaculum?

to receive head of thigh bone (femur)

84

What is the false pelvis?

the superior portion bounded by the ilia laterally and the sacrum and lumbar vertebrae posteriorly

85

What is the true pelvis?

inferior region that is almost entirely surrounded by bone

86

What is the superiormost margin of the true pelvis?

pelvic inlet or brim

87

What is the inferior margin of the true pelvis?

pelvic outlet

88

What is the thigh bone?

femur

89

What makes the femur unique from all other bones of the body?

strongest, heaviest, longest

90

How is the head of the femur different from most of the other bones?

carried on a neck

91

What features of the femur are located at the junction of the shaft and neck?

greater and lesser trochanters

92

How are the greater and lesser trochanters separated?

posteriorly by the intertrochanteric crest

93

The trochanters and trochanteric crest serve as what function?

place for muscles to attach

94

What is the gluteal tuberosity?

protrusions on the posterior portion of the bone

95

Where does the femur terminate?

medial and lateral condyles located on distal end of bone

96

What is the function of the condyles?

articulate with tibia below

97

What is the deep groove between the condyles?

intercondylar notch or fossa

98

How many bones form the leg?

2

99

What are the two bones that form the leg?

tibia, fibula

100

What connects the tibia and fibula?

interosseous membrane

101

What is the shin bone?

tibia

102

Which of the leg bones is bigger and wider?

tibia

103

What is at the proximal end of the tibia?

medial and lateral condyles

104

What separates the condyles of the tibia?

intercondylar eminence

105

What is the tibial tuberosity?

a roughened protrusion on the anterior tibial surface

106

What is the tibial tuberosity's function

attachment of patellar ligaments

107

What bone does the tibia articulate with in the foot?

talus bone

108

What is the process that forms the inner bulge of the ankle?

medial malleolus

109

What is the anterior border?

sharpened crest of the tibia unprotected by muscles

110

What bone lies parallel to the tibia?

fibula

111

Does the fibula attach to knee joint?

no

112

Where does the fibula terminate?

distal end at lateral malleolus

113

What does the lateral malleolus form?

lateral bulge of the ankle

114

What bones does the foot include?

tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges

115

What are the tarsals?

seven bones forming the ankle

116

What are the metatarsals?

form the sole

117

What are the phalanges?

The toes

118

Where is body weight concentrated on in the foot area?

calcaneus (heel bone)
talus (bone between tibia and calcaneus)

119

How are toes numbered?

1-5 starting at the tiniest toe

120

What are the functions of joints?

1) hold bones together
2) allow the rigid structure some flexibility

121

What is another name for joints?

articulations

122

What are the two ways joints can be classified?

structure or function

123

What is structural classification based on?

what separates articulating bones

124

What are the structural classifications?

fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial

125

What does functional classification based on?

amount of movement the joint allows

126

What are immovable joints?

synarthroses

127

What are joints that slightly move?

amphiarthroses

128

What are freely movable joints?

diarthroses

129

Where do freely movable joints predominate?

limbs

130

Where are immovable and slightly movable joints located?

axial skeleton

131

What are fibrous joints?

bones are joined by fibrous tissue

132

Do fibrous joints allow a lot of movement?

some do but most do not

133

What are the two major types of fibrous joints?

sutures, syndesmoses

134

What are sutures?

irregular edges of the ones that interlock and are united by short fibrous fibers

135

What are syndesmoses?

articulating bones are connected by short ligaments of dense fibrous tissue, bones do not interlock

136

What are cartilaginous joints?

articulating bone ends are connected by cartilage

137

What is the movement of cartilaginous joints?

slightly movable

138

What is an important cartilage?

symphasis

139

What is symphasis?

bones are connect by a broad flat disc of fibrocartilage

140

What are synovial joints?

articulating bone ends are separated by a joint cavity filled with synovial fluid

141

What is the mobility of synovial joints?

freely movable joints

142

What are some synovial joints structural characteristics?

1) enclosed by two-layered articular capsule creating joint cavity

2)outer part of capsule is dense fibrous connective tissue lined with smooth connective tissue called synovial membrane

3)Articulating surfaces of bones are covered in articular cartilage

4) articular capsule is reinforced with ligaments and may contain bursae, tendons sheaths

143

Synovial joints are divided into further categories how?

on the basis of movements they allow

144

What is uniaxial movement?

movement in one plane

145

What is biaxial movement?

movement in two planes

146

What is multiaxial movement?

movement in or around all three places of space

147

What is a plane?

articulating surfaces are flat, allowing sliding movement in one or two planes

148

What are hinge joints?

rounded process process of one bone fits into the concave surface of another to allow movement in one plane

149

What are pivot joints?

Rounded or conical surface of one bone articulates with the shallow depression or foramen of another

150

What are condyloid joints?

oval condyle of one bone fits into an oval depression in another allowing biaxial movement

151

What are saddle joints?

articulating surfaces are saddle shaped. one bone is covex the other in concave. biaxial

152

What are ball and socket joints?

ball shaped head of one bone fits into a cuplike depression of another allowing multiaxial movement

153

Every muscle is attached to the bone in what two points?

origin
insertion

154

What is the origin?

stationary, immovable attachment

155

What is the insertion?

the movable part

156

What is the movement of flexion?

decreases the angle of the joint and reduces the distance between two bones

157

What is the movement of extension?

increases the angle of a joint and the distance between two bones

158

What is hyperextension?

When angle is beyond 180 degrees

159

What is rotation?

movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis

160

What is abduction?

movement of a limb away from the midline or median plane of the body

161

What is circumduction?

combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction

162

What is adduction?

movement of a limb toward the midline of a body

163

What is dorsiflexion?

occurs at joint, movement of andle joint in a dorsal direction (standing on ones heals)

164

What is plantar flexion?

occurs at joint, movement of the ankle joint in which foot is flexed downward (standing on ones toes)

165

What is inversion?

movement that results in the medial turning of the sole of the foot, occurs at joint

166

What is eversion?

occurs at joint, a movement that results in the lateral turning of the sole of the foot, opposite of inversion

167

What is pronation?

occurs at joint, palm of hand from anterior to a posterior position. Radius and ulna end form X

168

What is supination?

movement of the pam from a posterior to anterior position

169

What is a sprain?

ligaments are damaged by exessive stretching

170

What is a dislocation?

bones forced out of their normal position in the joint cavity