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Flashcards in Week 8 Study Cards Deck (178):
1

What are the names of the arteries going from largest to smallest?

arteries, smaller arteries, arterioles, feed into capillary beds

2

What are capillary beds drained by?

venules

3

What do the venules empty into?

veins

4

What do the veins empty into?

the heart

5

What are arteries?

carrying blood away from the heart

6

What are veins?

carry blood to the heart

7

What are the only vessels that serve the needs of the body's cells directly?

capillaries

8

What occurs through the capillary walls?

exchange of materials (gases, nutrients, waters)

9

Except for the tiny capillaries, the walls of blood vessels have how many layers?

3 coats

10

What are the coats called generally?

tunics

11

What is the innermost tunic?

tunica intima

12

What does the tunica intima line?

lumen of a vessel

13

What is the structure of tunica intima?

single thin layer of endolithium, really smooth lining

14

What is the function of tunica intima?

reduce friction as blood flows through the vessel

15

What is the middle layer tunic?

tunica media

16

What is tunica media composed of?

bulky middle coat, smooth muscle and elastic tissue

17

What is the smooth muscle of the tunica media controlled by?

sympathetic nervous system

18

What is the function of the middle layer?

to actively change the diameter of blood vessels which in turn alters peripheral resistance and blood pressure

19

What is the outermost tunic?

tunica externa

20

What is the tunica externa composed of?

fibrous connective tissue

21

What is the function of the tunica externa?

to support and protect the vessel

22

In the walls of blood vessels, what is different between arteries and veins?

arteries are thicker due to a dense muscle tunica media layer

23

What is the purpose of arteries being thicker?

expanding and coiling faster due to more blood pressure

24

Why are the lumens of the veins larger than corresponding arteries?

to help blood return to heart

25

What modification in veins helps blood flow back to heart?

valves

26

What is the purpose of valves?

to prevent backflow of the blood

27

What physical thing aids in blood returning to the heart?

skeletal movement

28

How thick are capillary walls?

1 cell thick

29

What composes capillary walls?

endothlium underlain by a small amount of fine connective tissue

30

What is the largest artery in the body

aorta

31

What does the aorta extend upward as from the left ventricle?

ascending aorta

32

At what area does the aorta start bending down posteriorly?

aortic arch

33

What is the part of the aorta that courses downward?

thoracic aorta

34

The aorta passes through the diaphragm to enter the abdominal cavity as what?

abdominal aorta

35

What are the only branches of the ascending aorta?

right and left coronary arteries

36

What do the right and left coronary arteries supply?

myocardium

37

What is the first branch of the aortic arch?

brachiocephalic trunk

38

What are the other branches of the aortic arch?

left common carotid artery
left subclavian artery

39

What does the brachiocephalic artery split and divide into?

right common carotid artery and right subclavian artery

40

What does the common carotid arteries divide to form?

internal carotid artery and external carotid artery

41

What does the internal carotid artery serve?

the brain

42

What does the external carotid artery serve?

tissues external to the skull in the neck and head

43

What is the first branch of the subclavian arteries?

vertebral artery

44

What does the vertebral artery serve?

cerebellum, brain stem, posterior cerebral hemisphers

45

When the subclavian artery reaches armpit, what does it become?

axillary

46

What does the axillary artery serve?

upper limb

47

As the axillary enters the arm, what does the axillary become?

brachial artery

48

What does the brachial artery divide into?

radial and ulnar arteries

49

What are most of the thorax wall and the anterior intercostal structures supplied by

anterior intercostal artery branches

50

What is the posterior intercostal structures served by?

posterior intercostal arteries

51

What are the small arteries that serve the diaphragm?

phrenic arteries

52

What are the small arteries that serve the esophagus?

esophageal arteries

53

What small arteries serve the bronchi

bronchial arteries

54

What is an unpaired artery that splits into three branches?

celiac trunk

55

What are the three branches of the celiac trunk?

left gastric artery, splenic artery, common hepatic artery,

56

What does the gastric artery supply?

stomach

57

What does the splenic artery supply?

spleen

58

What does the common hepatic artery serve?

gives off branches to stomach, small intestine, and pancreas

59

What does the common hepatic artery become?

hepatic artery proper

60

What does the hepatic artery proper serve?

liver

61

What is the largest branch of the abdominal aorta?

superior mesenteric artery

62

What does the superior mesenteric artery serve?

small intestine and first half of large intestine

63

What do the paired renal arteries serve?

kidneys

64

What do the gonadal arteries serve?

gonads

65

What are the two different names for the gonadal arteries depending on sex?

ovarian arteries
testicular arteries

66

What is the final major branch of the abdominal aorta?

inferior mesenteric artery

67

What does the inferior mesenteric artery supply?

distal half of the large intestine

68

In the pelvic region, the descending aorta divides into what?

two large common iliac arteries

69

What do the two large common iliac arteries serve?

pelvis, lower abdominal wall, lower limbs

70

What do the common iliac arteries divide into?

internal and external iliac arteries

71

What do the internal iliac arteries supply?

gluteal muscles and the adductor muscles of the medial thigh, genitals

72

What does the external iliac artery supply?

anterior abdominal wall and the lower limb

73

What does the external iliac artery change its name to as it enters the thigh?

femoral artery

74

What do the branches of the femoral artery supply?

head of the femur and the hamstring muscles

75

What does the deep branch or the femoral artery form?

deep femoral artery

76

What does the deep femoral artery supply?

posterior thigh (knee flexor muscles)

77

At the knee what does the femoral artery become?

popliteal artery

78

What are the subdivisions of the popliteal artery?

anterior and posterior tibial arteries

79

What do the anterior and posterior tibial arteries serve?

leg and foot

80

What does the anterior tibial artery supply directly

extensor muscles

81

What does the anterior tibial artery terminates with?

dorsalis pedis artery

82

What does the dorsalis pedic artery supply?

dorsum of the foot

83

What does the dorsalis pedis artery continue on to?

arcuate artery

84

Arteries are more deep while veins are what?

more superficial

85

What do the veins that drain the head and upper extremity empty into?

superior vena cava

86

What do the veins that drain the lower body enter into?

inferior vena cava

87

Where does the inferior vena cava begin with?

in the lower abdominal region with the union of the paired common iliac veins

88

What do the common iliac veins drain?

blood from the legs and pelvis

89

What forms the union of the common iliac veins?

internal iliac veins and the external iliac veins

90

What do the internal iliac veins drain?

the pelvis

91

What do the external iliac veins drain?

lower limbs

92

Which veins serve the calf and foot?

anterior and posterior tibial veins

93

what is the anterior vein a continuation of?

dorsalis pedis vein

94

What forms the posterior vein?

media and lateral plantar veins

95

What do the medial and lateral plantar veins join with?

fibular peroneal vein

96

What does the fibular peroneal vein produce?

popliteal vein

97

What does the popliteal vein form?

femoral vein

98

What does the femoral vein form?

external iliac vein

99

What is the longest vein in the body?

the great saphenous vein

100

Where does the great saphenous vein begin?

small saphenous vein

101

Where does the great saphenous vein extend from?

dorsal venous arch

102

Where does the great saphenous vein empty into?

femoral vein

103

What does the small saphenous vein drain?

the calf muscle and then emptying into the popliteal vein

104

What does the inferior vena cava receive blood from?

posterior abdominal wall via several pairs of lumbar veins and from the right ovar or testis via the right gonadal vein

105

What does the left gonadal vein drain into?

left renal vein superiorly

106

What do the paired renal veins drain into?

the kidneys

107

What is just above the right renal vein

right suprarenal vein

108

what does the right suprarenal vein empty into?

inferior vena cava

109

What does the left suprarenal vein empty into

left renal vein inferiorly

110

What does the right and left hepatic vein drain into?

the liver

111

The unpaired veins during the digestive tract organs empty into what special vessel

hepatic portal vein

112

What does the hepatic portal vein carry

blood to the liver to be processed before it enters the systemtic venous system

113

What veins drain the head, neck, upper extremeties?

right and left brachiocephalic veins

114

what are branches of the braciocephalic veins

internal jugular, vertebral, and subclavian veins

115

What are the jugular veins?

large veins that drain the dural sinuses of the brain, receive blood from the head and neck as they move inferiorly

116

What are the vertebral veins?

drain the posterior aspect of the head and neck as they move inferiorly

117

What are the subclavian veins

receive venous blood from the upper limb

118

What are the external jagular vein?

returning venous dainage of the extracranial tssues of the head and neck, joins the subclavian vein near its origin

119

As the subclavian vein enters the axilla what does it become

axillary vein

120

What does the axillary vein become

brachial vein

121

What is the brachial vein formed by

radial and ulnar veins

122

What does the superficial venous drainage of the arm includes what

cephalic vein

123

What does the cephalic vein empty into

axillary vein

124

What vein enters the brachial vein?

basilic vein

125

What vein enters the anterior elbos

median cubital vein

126

What drains th e right side of the thorax, enters the dorsal aspect of the superior vena vaca just before that vessel enters the heart

azygos vein

127

What does the pulmonary circulation begin with?

pulmonary trunk

128

Where does the pulmonary trunk leave

right ventricle

129

what does the pulmonary trunk divide into

right and left pulmonary arteries

130

The pulmonary arteries plunge into the lungs where they subdivide into what

lobar arteries

131

Where does diffusion in the lungs occur

pulmonary capillaries and air sacs

132

What are the pulmonary capillaries drained by?

venules

133

What do the venules form

pulmonary veins

134

how many pulmonary veins are there

4

135

What are the three blood vessels of the umbilical cord

umbilical vein
umbilical arteries
ductus venosis

136

What does the umbilical veins do

carries blood rich in nutrients and oxygen to the fetus

137

What does the smaller umbilical arteries do

carry carbon dioxide and waste laden blood from the fetus to the placenta

138

What does the ductus venosis do?

shun oxygenated blood to bypass the immature liver through the inferior vena cava to the right atrium

139

Some of the blood entering the right atrium moves into the left atrium through what

foramen ovale

140

What is the foramen ovale

flaplike opening in the interatrial septum

141

What is the ductus arteriosus

a short vessel connecting the pulmonary trunk and the aorta

142

The veins of the hepatic portal circulation do what and drain into what

drain the digestive organs, spleen, and pancreas, and deliver blood to the liver via hepatic portal vein

143

What is the liver drained by

hepatic veins that enter the inferior vena cava

144

What drains the distal part of the large intestine

inferior mesenteric vein

145

What does the inferior mesenteric veins join

splenic vein

146

What does the splenic vein drain

spleen, pancreas, stomach

147

What drains the small intestine

superior mesenteric vein

148

What do the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein unite to form

hepatic portal vein

149

What drains the lesser curvature of the stomach, drains directly into the hepatic portal vein

left gastric vein

150

the brain is supplied by two pairs of arteries arising from the region of the aortic arch

internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries

151

What are the branches of the common carotid arteries that take a deep course through the neck, entering the skull through the carotid canals of the temporal bone

internal carotid arteries

152

What do the internal carotid arteries

anterior and middle cerebral arteries

153

what do the anterior and middle cerebral arteries supply

cerebrum

154

What do the internal carotid arteries contribute to

circle of Willis

155

What does the circle of Willis help form

posterior communicating artery

156

What is the circle completed by

anterion communicating artery

157

What branches from the subclavian arteries and pass superiorly through the transvers processes of the cervical vetebrae to enter the skull through the foramen magnum

vertebral arteries

158

What do the vertebral arteries unite to form what?

basilar artery

159

What does the basilar artery divide at the base of the cerebrum

posterior cerebral arteries

160

What do the posterior cerebral arteries supply

posterior part of the cerebrum and become part of the circle of Willis

161

In a healthy heart what contracts simultaneously

atria

162

as the atria begins to relax what contracts

ventricles

163

systole and diastole refere to what

contraction and relaxation (in that order)

164

What is the cardiac cycle

one complete heartbeat during which both atria and ventricles contract and relax

165

What are the two distinct sounds heard during cardiac cycle

lub and dub of heart sounds

166

When does the lub sound occur

beginning of systole when AV valves close at beginning of cyclee

167

The dup occurs when

semilunar valves close at the end of systole

168

What does the term pulse refer to

alternating surges of pressure in an artery that occur with each beat of the left ventricle

169

What is the average beat per minute

70-76

170

What is pulse deficit

large differences between values observed

171

What is blood pressure?

the pressure the blood exerts against the inner blood vessel walls

172

What are the two blood pressure readings

systolic pressure and diastolic pressure

173

What is systolic pressure

pressure in the arteries at the peak of ventricular ejection

174

What is diastolic pressure

the pressure during ventricular relaxation

175

what is normal blood pressure

120/80

176

What is a sphygmomanometer

blood pressure cuff

177

What is the sounds coming from the partially blocked artery

sounds of Korotkoff

178

arterial blood pressure is directly proportional to what

cardiac output and peripheral resistance