Flashcards in Week 8 Study Cards Deck (178):
What are the names of the arteries going from largest to smallest?
arteries, smaller arteries, arterioles, feed into capillary beds
What are capillary beds drained by?
What do the venules empty into?
What do the veins empty into?
What are arteries?
carrying blood away from the heart
What are veins?
carry blood to the heart
What are the only vessels that serve the needs of the body's cells directly?
What occurs through the capillary walls?
exchange of materials (gases, nutrients, waters)
Except for the tiny capillaries, the walls of blood vessels have how many layers?
What are the coats called generally?
What is the innermost tunic?
What does the tunica intima line?
lumen of a vessel
What is the structure of tunica intima?
single thin layer of endolithium, really smooth lining
What is the function of tunica intima?
reduce friction as blood flows through the vessel
What is the middle layer tunic?
What is tunica media composed of?
bulky middle coat, smooth muscle and elastic tissue
What is the smooth muscle of the tunica media controlled by?
sympathetic nervous system
What is the function of the middle layer?
to actively change the diameter of blood vessels which in turn alters peripheral resistance and blood pressure
What is the outermost tunic?
What is the tunica externa composed of?
fibrous connective tissue
What is the function of the tunica externa?
to support and protect the vessel
In the walls of blood vessels, what is different between arteries and veins?
arteries are thicker due to a dense muscle tunica media layer
What is the purpose of arteries being thicker?
expanding and coiling faster due to more blood pressure
Why are the lumens of the veins larger than corresponding arteries?
to help blood return to heart
What modification in veins helps blood flow back to heart?
What is the purpose of valves?
to prevent backflow of the blood
What physical thing aids in blood returning to the heart?
How thick are capillary walls?
1 cell thick
What composes capillary walls?
endothlium underlain by a small amount of fine connective tissue
What is the largest artery in the body
What does the aorta extend upward as from the left ventricle?
At what area does the aorta start bending down posteriorly?
What is the part of the aorta that courses downward?
The aorta passes through the diaphragm to enter the abdominal cavity as what?
What are the only branches of the ascending aorta?
right and left coronary arteries
What do the right and left coronary arteries supply?
What is the first branch of the aortic arch?
What are the other branches of the aortic arch?
left common carotid artery
left subclavian artery
What does the brachiocephalic artery split and divide into?
right common carotid artery and right subclavian artery
What does the common carotid arteries divide to form?
internal carotid artery and external carotid artery
What does the internal carotid artery serve?
What does the external carotid artery serve?
tissues external to the skull in the neck and head
What is the first branch of the subclavian arteries?
What does the vertebral artery serve?
cerebellum, brain stem, posterior cerebral hemisphers
When the subclavian artery reaches armpit, what does it become?
What does the axillary artery serve?
As the axillary enters the arm, what does the axillary become?
What does the brachial artery divide into?
radial and ulnar arteries
What are most of the thorax wall and the anterior intercostal structures supplied by
anterior intercostal artery branches
What is the posterior intercostal structures served by?
posterior intercostal arteries
What are the small arteries that serve the diaphragm?
What are the small arteries that serve the esophagus?
What small arteries serve the bronchi
What is an unpaired artery that splits into three branches?
What are the three branches of the celiac trunk?
left gastric artery, splenic artery, common hepatic artery,
What does the gastric artery supply?
What does the splenic artery supply?
What does the common hepatic artery serve?
gives off branches to stomach, small intestine, and pancreas
What does the common hepatic artery become?
hepatic artery proper
What does the hepatic artery proper serve?
What is the largest branch of the abdominal aorta?
superior mesenteric artery
What does the superior mesenteric artery serve?
small intestine and first half of large intestine
What do the paired renal arteries serve?
What do the gonadal arteries serve?
What are the two different names for the gonadal arteries depending on sex?
What is the final major branch of the abdominal aorta?
inferior mesenteric artery
What does the inferior mesenteric artery supply?
distal half of the large intestine
In the pelvic region, the descending aorta divides into what?
two large common iliac arteries
What do the two large common iliac arteries serve?
pelvis, lower abdominal wall, lower limbs
What do the common iliac arteries divide into?
internal and external iliac arteries
What do the internal iliac arteries supply?
gluteal muscles and the adductor muscles of the medial thigh, genitals
What does the external iliac artery supply?
anterior abdominal wall and the lower limb
What does the external iliac artery change its name to as it enters the thigh?
What do the branches of the femoral artery supply?
head of the femur and the hamstring muscles
What does the deep branch or the femoral artery form?
deep femoral artery
What does the deep femoral artery supply?
posterior thigh (knee flexor muscles)
At the knee what does the femoral artery become?
What are the subdivisions of the popliteal artery?
anterior and posterior tibial arteries
What do the anterior and posterior tibial arteries serve?
leg and foot
What does the anterior tibial artery supply directly
What does the anterior tibial artery terminates with?
dorsalis pedis artery
What does the dorsalis pedic artery supply?
dorsum of the foot
What does the dorsalis pedis artery continue on to?
Arteries are more deep while veins are what?
What do the veins that drain the head and upper extremity empty into?
superior vena cava
What do the veins that drain the lower body enter into?
inferior vena cava
Where does the inferior vena cava begin with?
in the lower abdominal region with the union of the paired common iliac veins
What do the common iliac veins drain?
blood from the legs and pelvis
What forms the union of the common iliac veins?
internal iliac veins and the external iliac veins
What do the internal iliac veins drain?
What do the external iliac veins drain?
Which veins serve the calf and foot?
anterior and posterior tibial veins
what is the anterior vein a continuation of?
dorsalis pedis vein
What forms the posterior vein?
media and lateral plantar veins
What do the medial and lateral plantar veins join with?
fibular peroneal vein
What does the fibular peroneal vein produce?
What does the popliteal vein form?
What does the femoral vein form?
external iliac vein
What is the longest vein in the body?
the great saphenous vein
Where does the great saphenous vein begin?
small saphenous vein
Where does the great saphenous vein extend from?
dorsal venous arch
Where does the great saphenous vein empty into?
What does the small saphenous vein drain?
the calf muscle and then emptying into the popliteal vein
What does the inferior vena cava receive blood from?
posterior abdominal wall via several pairs of lumbar veins and from the right ovar or testis via the right gonadal vein
What does the left gonadal vein drain into?
left renal vein superiorly
What do the paired renal veins drain into?
What is just above the right renal vein
right suprarenal vein
what does the right suprarenal vein empty into?
inferior vena cava
What does the left suprarenal vein empty into
left renal vein inferiorly
What does the right and left hepatic vein drain into?
The unpaired veins during the digestive tract organs empty into what special vessel
hepatic portal vein
What does the hepatic portal vein carry
blood to the liver to be processed before it enters the systemtic venous system
What veins drain the head, neck, upper extremeties?
right and left brachiocephalic veins
what are branches of the braciocephalic veins
internal jugular, vertebral, and subclavian veins
What are the jugular veins?
large veins that drain the dural sinuses of the brain, receive blood from the head and neck as they move inferiorly
What are the vertebral veins?
drain the posterior aspect of the head and neck as they move inferiorly
What are the subclavian veins
receive venous blood from the upper limb
What are the external jagular vein?
returning venous dainage of the extracranial tssues of the head and neck, joins the subclavian vein near its origin
As the subclavian vein enters the axilla what does it become
What does the axillary vein become
What is the brachial vein formed by
radial and ulnar veins
What does the superficial venous drainage of the arm includes what
What does the cephalic vein empty into
What vein enters the brachial vein?
What vein enters the anterior elbos
median cubital vein
What drains th e right side of the thorax, enters the dorsal aspect of the superior vena vaca just before that vessel enters the heart
What does the pulmonary circulation begin with?
Where does the pulmonary trunk leave
what does the pulmonary trunk divide into
right and left pulmonary arteries
The pulmonary arteries plunge into the lungs where they subdivide into what
Where does diffusion in the lungs occur
pulmonary capillaries and air sacs
What are the pulmonary capillaries drained by?
What do the venules form
how many pulmonary veins are there
What are the three blood vessels of the umbilical cord
What does the umbilical veins do
carries blood rich in nutrients and oxygen to the fetus
What does the smaller umbilical arteries do
carry carbon dioxide and waste laden blood from the fetus to the placenta
What does the ductus venosis do?
shun oxygenated blood to bypass the immature liver through the inferior vena cava to the right atrium
Some of the blood entering the right atrium moves into the left atrium through what
What is the foramen ovale
flaplike opening in the interatrial septum
What is the ductus arteriosus
a short vessel connecting the pulmonary trunk and the aorta
The veins of the hepatic portal circulation do what and drain into what
drain the digestive organs, spleen, and pancreas, and deliver blood to the liver via hepatic portal vein
What is the liver drained by
hepatic veins that enter the inferior vena cava
What drains the distal part of the large intestine
inferior mesenteric vein
What does the inferior mesenteric veins join
What does the splenic vein drain
spleen, pancreas, stomach
What drains the small intestine
superior mesenteric vein
What do the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein unite to form
hepatic portal vein
What drains the lesser curvature of the stomach, drains directly into the hepatic portal vein
left gastric vein
the brain is supplied by two pairs of arteries arising from the region of the aortic arch
internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries
What are the branches of the common carotid arteries that take a deep course through the neck, entering the skull through the carotid canals of the temporal bone
internal carotid arteries
What do the internal carotid arteries
anterior and middle cerebral arteries
what do the anterior and middle cerebral arteries supply
What do the internal carotid arteries contribute to
circle of Willis
What does the circle of Willis help form
posterior communicating artery
What is the circle completed by
anterion communicating artery
What branches from the subclavian arteries and pass superiorly through the transvers processes of the cervical vetebrae to enter the skull through the foramen magnum
What do the vertebral arteries unite to form what?
What does the basilar artery divide at the base of the cerebrum
posterior cerebral arteries
What do the posterior cerebral arteries supply
posterior part of the cerebrum and become part of the circle of Willis
In a healthy heart what contracts simultaneously
as the atria begins to relax what contracts
systole and diastole refere to what
contraction and relaxation (in that order)
What is the cardiac cycle
one complete heartbeat during which both atria and ventricles contract and relax
What are the two distinct sounds heard during cardiac cycle
lub and dub of heart sounds
When does the lub sound occur
beginning of systole when AV valves close at beginning of cyclee
The dup occurs when
semilunar valves close at the end of systole
What does the term pulse refer to
alternating surges of pressure in an artery that occur with each beat of the left ventricle
What is the average beat per minute
What is pulse deficit
large differences between values observed
What is blood pressure?
the pressure the blood exerts against the inner blood vessel walls
What are the two blood pressure readings
systolic pressure and diastolic pressure
What is systolic pressure
pressure in the arteries at the peak of ventricular ejection
What is diastolic pressure
the pressure during ventricular relaxation
what is normal blood pressure
What is a sphygmomanometer
blood pressure cuff
What is the sounds coming from the partially blocked artery
sounds of Korotkoff