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Flashcards in Week 10 Deck (164):
1

What is the main excretory system

urinary system

2

What does the urinary system remove

nirtogenous waste

3

What is the function of the kidneys

maintains the electrolyte, acid base, and fluid balances of the blood

4

What is the major homeostatic organ of the body

kidneys

5

Where are the kidneys located

dorsal body wall in the superior lumbar region

6

Why is the right kidney slightly lower than the left kidney

because it is crowded by the liver

7

What holds the kidneys in place

perirenal fat capsules

8

What type of organ are the kidneys

retroperitoneal

9

What diverges from the descending aorta and plunge into the indented medial region of each kidney

renal arteries

10

What is the name of the area where the renal artery plunges into the kidneys

hilum

11

What is the function of the renal arteries

bring blood to the kidneys

12

What is the function of the renal veins

drain the kidneys of circulatory drainage

13

What is the function of the ureters

drain urine from the kidneys and conduct it to the bladder

14

What stores the urine

urinary bladder

15

What drains the bladder

urethra

16

What is the triangular region of the bladder which is outlined by three openings

trigone

17

What is the top muscle the helps control outflow of urine

internal urethral sphincter

18

Is the internal urethral sphincter involuntary or voluntary

involuntary

19

What is the lower muscle that helps control outflow of urine

external urethral sphicter

20

Is the external urethral sphincter involuntary or voluntary

voluntary

21

How long is the male urethra

20 cm

22

What does the male urethra travel the length of

penis

23

What are the three named regions of the male urethra

prostatic
membranous
spongy

24

How long is the female urethra

4 cm

25

What is the external opening of the female urethra

external urethral orifice

26

What is the kidney enclosed in by

fibrous capsule

27

What is the function of the fibrous capsule

prevents infections in surrounding areas from spreading to the kidneys

28

What is the superficial kidney region which is lighter in color

kidney cortex (renal cortex)

29

What is deep to the cortex and is a darker reddish brown color

renal medulla

30

What are the segregated triangular portions of the medulla

renal pyramids

31

The base of the pyramid points which way

out towards the cortex

32

What is the point of the pyramid called

apex

33

What are the areas of tissue, more like the cortex in appearance which separates the medullary pyramids

renal columns

34

What is medial to the hilum, relatively flat, basin like cavity that is continuous with the ureter

renal pelvis

35

What is the ureter

exits from the hilum region

36

What are the fingerlike extensions of the pelvis from cuplike areas

calyces

37

What is the function of the calyces

collect urine draining continuously from the pyramidal tips into the pelvis

38

What are little red and blue specks of the cortex

glomeruli

39

How is blood supplied to the liver

renal arteries

40

As the renal artery approaches liver what does it do

branch into five branches

41

What are the five branches called

segmental arteries

42

What does each segmental artery do?

divides into several lobar arteries

43

What does each lobar artery do?

branch to form interlobar arteries

44

Where do the interlobar arteries extend

ascend toward the cortex in the renal column areas

45

At the top of the medullary region what do the interlobar arteries give off

arcuate arteries, which are branches

46

What branches off the arcuate arteries

cortical radiate arteries

47

Where do the cortical radiate arteries go

ascend into the cortex

48

As the cortical radiate arteries ascend what do they give off

branches of afferent arterioles

49

What do the afferent arterioles provide

the capillary networks that supply the nephrons or functional units of the kidney

50

What are the two capillary networks of the kidney

glomeruli and peritubular capillary beds

51

Blood draining from the nephron capillary networks enters what

cortical radiate veins

52

What do the cortical radiate veins drain into

arcuate veins and interlobar veins

53

What do the arcuate veins and interlobar veins drain into

renal vein

54

What is the anatomical units responsible for forming urine

nephrons

55

What does each nephron consist of

glomerulus and renal tubule

56

What is a glomerulus

capillary knot

57

What is the enlarged end of the tubule encasing the glomerulus

glomerular (bowman's) capsule

58

The inner wall of the glomerulus wall consists of specialized cells called

podocytes

59

What are the long branching processes of the podocytes called

foot processes

60

What do the podocytes form

porous membrane around the glomerulus

61

What is the descending portion of the tubule

proximal convoluted tubule

62

What is the name of the curve in the tubule

loop of Henle

63

What is the ascending portion of the tubule

distal convoluted tubule

64

What are most of the nephrons specifically called

cortical nephrons

65

What are the nephrons located close to the cortex medulla junction called

juxtamedullary nephrons

66

What is the part that receives urine from the many nephrons and runs downward through the medullary pyramids to empty the urine product into the calyces and pelvis

collecting ducts

67

How is the glomerlus a high pressure bed along its entire length

1) fed and drained by arterioes (higher resistance vessel)
2) the feeder afferent arteriole is larger in diameter than the efferent arteriole draining the bed

68

What does this pressure created do?

forces out fluid and blood components smaller than protein from the glomerlus into the glomerular capsule

69

What arises from the effernet arteriole draining the glomerulus

peritubular capillary bed

70

What type of pressure are the peritubular capillary beds

low pressure

71

What is the effect of low pressure

adaped for absorption and readily take up of solutes and water reclaimed from the filtrate by the tubule cells

72

What is the yellow color of urine due to

urochrome

73

What does urochrome result from

breakdown of hemoglobin

74

What give urine the ammonia like odor

bacterial action

75

What is the pH of urine

6.0

76

What is specific gravity

relative weight of a specific volume of liquid compared with an equal volume of distilled water

77

What is kidney inflammation

pyelonephritis

78

What occurs when the solutes begin to precipitate or crystalliz

kidney stones or renal calculi

79

What is the biological function of the reproductive system

perpetuate the species

80

What is the reproductive role of the male

to manufacture sperm and deliver them to the female reproductive tract

81

What is the reproductive role of the female

produces eggs and nurture and protect the embroyo until birth

82

What are the primary sex organs of the male

testes and gonads

83

What type of function do these sex organs have

endocrine and exocrine

84

What is the endocrine function of the male sex organs

sperm production

85

What is the exocrine function of the male sex organs

testosterone production

86

Where do the paired oval testes lie

scrotal sac

87

Where is the scrotal sac located

outside the abdominopelvic cavity

88

What is the function of the scrotal sac

keep the temperature there slightly lower than body temperature to produce viable sperm

89

What are the accesory structures forming the duct system

epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct

90

What is the epididymis

elongated structure running up the posterolateral aspect of the testis and capping its superior aspect

91

What is the function of the epididymis

site for immature sperm to mature

92

What is the ductus deferens

sperm ducts

93

Where does the ductus deferens run

superiorly from the epididymis, through the inguinal canal into the pelvic cavity and arches over the superior aspect of the urinary bladder

94

What is the ductus deferens enclosed in by

blood vessels and nerves in a connective tissue sheath

95

What is this sheath called

spermatic cord

96

What does the end of the ductus deferens empty into

ejaculatory duct

97

What does contraction of the ejaculatory duct do

propel sperm through prostate gland to the prostatic urethra

98

What does the prostatic urethra empty into

membranous urethra

99

What does the membranous urethra empty into

spongy penile urethra

100

What are accessory glands of the male reproductive system

prostate, seminal glands, bulbo-urethral glands

101

What do the glands produce

seminal fluid

102

What is the seminal fluid

liquid medium in which sperm leaves the body

103

What are seminal glands (vesicles)

produce a thick alkaline secretion containing fructose and other substances that nourish or activate the sperm passing through

104

What is the function of the prostate

secretion of milky fluid into the urethra which plays a role in activating the sperm

105

What are the bulbo-urethral glands

tiny, pea shaped glands inferior to the prostate

106

What is the function of the bulbo-urethral glands

produce a thick clear mucus that drains into the membranous urethra

107

What is the function of the clear mucus produced by the bulbo urethral glands

to wash residual urine out of the urethra when ejaculation of semen occurs

108

What is the part of the external genitalia of the male

penis

109

What does the shaft terminates into

enlarged tip, glans

110

What is the skin that reflects downward to form a fold of skin

prepuce or foreskin

111

What is the process in which the foreskin is removed

circumcision

112

What is it causes when the cylinders in the penis fill with blood

erection

113

What is the dense capsule of the testis

tunica albuginea

114

What type of tissue makes up the capsule of the testis

dense connective tissue capsule

115

Extensions of the tunca albuginea do what

divide the testis into a number of lobes

116

What do the lobes of the testis house

seminiferous tubules

117

What is the seminiferous tubules function

sperm forming factories

118

What do the seminiferous tubules empty the sperm into

rete testis

119

Where does the rete testis empty

epididymis

120

What lies in the connective tissue between the seminiferous tubules

interstitial cells

121

What is the function of the interstitial cells

produce testosterone

122

What are the three regions of sperm

head, midpiece and tail

123

What is contained in the head of the sperm

DNA of the chromosomes

124

What is anterior to the nucleus

acrosome

125

What is the function of the acrosome

contains enzymes involved in sperm penetration of the egg

126

What are the primary sex organs of the femal

ovaries

127

What type of function is the ovaries

endocrine and exocrine

128

What is the endocrine function of the ovaries

estrogens and progesterone

129

What is the exocrine function of the ovaries

produce an egg

130

What does the external genitalia consist of

mons pubis, labia majora and minora, the clitoris, urethral and vaginal orifices and greater vestibular glands

131

What is the mons pubis

rounded fatty area overlying the pubic symphysis

132

What are the labia majora

two elongated hair covered skin folds

133

What is enclosed in the labia majora

labia minora

134

What are the labia minora

hair free folds

135

The labia minora encloses what

vestibule

136

What is the vestibule

contains the clitoris, urethral orifice, vaginal orifice

137

What is the clitoris

highly sensitive erectile tissue and is hooded by a prepuce

138

What is the urethral orifice

outlet for the urinary system and has no reproductive function

139

What is the vaginal opening flanked by

greater vestibular glands

140

What does the greater vestibular glands secrete

mucus for lubrication

141

What do the internal female organs include

vagina, uterus, uterine tubes, ovaries, and structures that suspend these organs

142

What is the vagina

copulatory organ and birth canal and permits the menstrual flow to pass

143

How long is the vagina

4 inches

144

What is the pear shaped organ

uterus

145

What is the uterus

muscular organ with its narrow end directed inferiorly

146

What is the narrow end of the uterus

cirvix

147

What is the major portion of the uterus

body

148

WHat is the uterus's superior rounded region above the entrance of the uterine tubes

fundus

149

Where do the uterine or fallopian tubes enter the uterus

the superior part about 10 cm toward the ovaries

150

The distal end of the fallopian tubes have fingerlike projections called what

fimbriae

151

What is the fold that encloses the uterine tubes and uterus and secures them to the lateral body walls

body ligament

152

What help attach the uterus to the body wall

round ligaments and uterosacral ligaments

153

What are the ovaries supported by medially

ovarian ligament

154

What are the ovaries supported by laterally

suspensory ligaments

155

What do the eggs begin their development in

saclike structures called follicles

156

What do the follicles produce

estrogens

157

When the egg reaches the stage of maturity, it is ejected from the ovary in the even tcalled

ovulation

158

THe ruptured follicle is then converted to what which secretes progesterone

corpus luteum

159

What is the outermost layer of the ovary

germinal epithelium

160

What are the one or a few layers of the cuboidal follicle cells surrounding the larger central developing ovum

primary follicle

161

What are follicles consisting of several layers of follicle cells surrounding the central devolepoing ovum and beginning to show evidence of fluid accumulation in a central cavity

secondary follicles (growing)

162

What is the stage of development that the follicle has a large antrum containing fluid

Vesicular (Graafian) follicle

163

THe developing ovum is pushed to one side of the follicle and is surrounded by a capsule of several layers of follicle cells called

corona radiata

164

What is a solid glandular structure or a structure containing a scalloped lumen that develops from the ovulated follicle. Produces both estrogens and progesterone

corpus luteum