Week 4 Study Cards Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 4 Study Cards Deck (99):
1

What is the origin?

stationary bone the muscle attaches to

2

What is the insertion?

the moveable bone the muscle attaches to

3

What is rectus?

fibers parallel to the midline of the body

4

What is transverse?

fibers perpendicular to the midline

5

What is oblique?

fibers diagonal to the midline

6

What are neighboring bones?

occipitalis
intercostal

7

What are terms meaning large?

maximus, magnus, major, vastus

8

What are terms meaning small?

minimus, minor

9

What is a term meaning medium size?

medius

10

What is a term meaning long?

longus

11

What is a term meaning short or brief?

brevis

12

What does bi mean?

two origins

13

What does tri mean?

three origins

14

What does quad mean?

four

15

What shape is rhomboideus?

diamond shape

16

What shape is serratus?

serrated, saw-toothed

17

What shape is teres?

rounded

18

What shape is deltoid?

triangular, like a river delta

19

What action does a flexor muscle do?

decreases the angle at a joint

20

What action does a extensor do?

increase angle at a joint

21

What action does an abductor do?

moving away from the midline

22

What action does an adductor do?

moving closer to the midline

23

What action does levator do?

moving upward

24

What action does a depressor do?

move downward

25

What action does a constrictor do?

surround

26

What action does a pronator do?

moving the palm downward of posterior

27

What action does a supinator do?

moving the palm upward of anterior

28

What are the relative location terms?

anterior
posterior
dorsal
inferior
superior
lateral
medial

29

What is the bulk of the body's muscle

skeletal muscle

30

What is the shape of muscle cells?

long, cylindrical cells, relatively large

31

How many nuclei do muscle cells?

more than one

32

What is the plasma membrane in skeletal muscle cells called?

sarcolemma

33

How are the nuclei arranged in skeletal muscle cells?

myofibrils, lined longitudinaly

34

What composes the myofibrils?

myofilaments

35

What two proteins compose myofibrils?

actin and myosin

36

What is the function of actin and myosin?

to slide past each other during muscle activity and bring about shortening or contractions

37

What are the contractile units of the muscle?

sarcomeres

38

What composes skeletal muscle (what is the structure)?

muscle fibers bundled together with connective tissue

39

What is the connective tissue that encloses each muscle fiber?

endomysium

40

What collagenic membrane layer are sheathed muscle fibers wrapped in?

perimysium

41

What does the fibers and collagenic perimysium form?

fascicle

42

What binds a large amount of fascicles?

epimysium (dense connective tissue)

43

What do the epimysia blend into?

strong cordlike tendons or sheet-like aponeuroses

44

What are the function of tendons and aponeuroses?

attach muscles to each other or indirectly to bones
strengthening the muscle as a whole

45

What stimulates skeletal muscle cells?

motor neurons via impulses

46

What is the junction between a nerve fiber and a muscle cell?

neuromuscular or myoneural junction

47

What are the branches of a motor axon called?

axon terminals

48

What makes up a motor unit?

neuron, all the muscle cells

49

What is the synaptic cleft?

small fluid filled gap between muscle fiber membranes and neurons

50

What are muscles that are primarily responsible for producing a particular movement?

prime movers or agonists

51

What are muscle that oppose or reverse a movement called?

antagonists

52

What are muscles that aid the action of prime movers by reducing undesirable or unnecessary movement

synergists

53

What are muscles that are specialized synergists by immobilizing the origin of prime mover so that all the tension is exerted at the insertion?

fixators

54

What muscle is the temporalis? Where is it located?

The muscle originating at the temppporal bone and connecting to the madible (coronoid process)

55

What is the masseter muscle? Where is it located? What is its function?

originates at zygomatic arch and process and connects to the mandible. Its function is to elevate mandible

56

What is the buccinator? Where is it located?

located at maxilla and mandible connecting to the orbicularis oris

57

What is the playsma? Where is it located?

fascia of chest to the mandible (lower margin) corner of the mouth

58

What is the sternocleidomastoid? Where is it located? What is its function?

manubrium of sternum clavicle and connecting to mastoid process of temporal bone. It's function is flexing head and neck while rotation

59

What is the deltoid? Where is it located? What is its function?

acromion and spine clavicle of scapula and connects to deltoid tuberosity on humerous. it's function is to abducts, flexes or extends/ rotates

60

What is the pectoralis major? Where is it located? What is its function?

located on sternum, clavicle, costal cartilages and connects to greater tubercle. Its function is to flex, adduct, medially rotate

61

What is the trapezius? Where is it located? What is its function?

originates at occipital bone, C1-T12 and connects to acromion and spine of clavicle and scapula. It's function is to rotate, adduct, elevate, depress, stabilize scapula and extend and rotate the head

62

what is the latissimus dorsi? Where is it located? What is its function?

T7-L5 vertebrae, iliac crest and ribs connecting to proximal intertubercule groove of humerus. It's function is to extend and adduct humerus

63

What is the erector spinae?

vertebrae, sacrum, iliac crest connecting to vertebrae,ribs

64

What is the rectus abdominus?

originates at pubic crest/ symphasis and connects toxiphoid process of sternum

65

What is the external oblique?

originates at lower eight ribs and connects to iliac crest, linea alba, pubis

66

What is the internal oblique?

originates at lumbodorsal fascia and iliac crest and connects to linea alba and ribs 10-12

67

What is the transverse abdominus?

orginates at lumbodorsal fascia. iliac crest, cartilages of ribs 7-10 and connects to linea alba and pubis crest

68

What is the iliopsoas?

originates at ilium and T/L vertebrae (T12-L5) and connects to lesser trochanter of femur. It's function is to flex

69

What is the sartorius?

originates at anterior superior iliac spine and connects to proximal medial surface of the tibia

70

What is the rectus femoris? Where is it located and what is its function?

originates at anterior inferior illiac spine and superior margin of acetabulum and connects to tibial tuberosit. Its function is to extend leg and flex thighs

71

What is the vastus lateralis? Where is it located and what is its function?

originates at greater trochanter of femur and connects to tibial tuberosity. Its function is to extend the leg

72

What is the vastus intermedius? Where is it located and what is its function?

Originates on anterior and lateral surfaces and linea aspera of femur and connects to tibial tuberosity. Its function is to extend the leg

73

What is the vastus medialis? Where is it located and what is its function?

originates at linea aspera of femus and connects to tibial tuberosity. its function is to extend the leg

74

What are the three adductor muscles?

magnus, longus, and brevis

75

What is the magnus adductor muscle?

originates at ischium and pubis of rami and connects to linea aspera adductor tuber of femur

76

What is the longus adductor muscle?

originates at pubis and connects to femur linea aspera

77

What is the brevis adductor muscles?

originates at pubis body and inf ramus and connects to linea aspera of femur

78

What is the function of the adductor muscles

adduct, flex, rotate laterally the thigh

79

What is the gluteus maximus? Where is it located? What is its function?

originates at illum-iliac crest, sacrum, coccyx and connects to gluteal tuberosity of femur. Its function is to extend the thigh and rotate laterally

80

What is the gluteus medius? Where is it located and what is its function?

Originates at illium and connects to greater trochanter of the femur. Its function is to abduct thing and rotate medially

81

What are the biceps femoris? Where is it located and what is its function?

originates at ischial tuberosity of ischium and femur distal, connecting to head of fibula. Its function is to flex the leg, extend and laterally rotate the thigh

82

What is the semitendinosus? Where is it located and what is its funtion?

Originates at ischial tuberosity of ischium and connects to proximal medial surface of tibia. Its function is to flex the leg and extend a medially rotate the thigh

83

What is the semimembranosus? Where is it located and what is its function?

Originates at ischial tuberosity of ischium and connects to proximal of tibia. Its function is to flex the leg and extend and medially rotate the thigh

84

What is the gastrocnemius? Where is it located and what is its function?

Originates at medial and leteral condyle of femur and connects to calcaneus. Its function is to plantar flexes of foot and flex leg

85

What is the soleus? Where is it located and what is its function?

originates a head and proximal shaft of fibula and posterior, medial shaft of tibia connecting to calcaneus. Its function is plantar flexes in the foot

86

What is the tibialis anterior? Where is it located and what is its function?

Originates at lateral condyle and proximal shaft of tibia and connects to 1st metatarsal base medial cuneiform. Its function is dorsiflexes of the foot

87

What is the fibularis/peroneus?

Originates at fibula-proximal and connects to 1st metatarsal

88

What is the extensor digitorum longus?

Originates at lateral condyle of tibia and proximal fibula connecting to mid and distal phalanges 2-2-5 surfaces

89

What are the biceps brachii? Where are they located? What is there function?

Originates at superior margin of the scapula's glenoid cavity and coracoid process and connects to radial tuberosity of radius. Its function is to flex forearm and flex humerus

90

What are the brachialis? Where are they located? what is their function?

Originates at distal half, anterior of humerus and connects to coronoid process of ulna. its function is to flex forearm

91

What is brachioradialis?

Located at distal anterior of humerus and connects to styloid process of radius

92

What is the flexor digitorum superficialis?

distal part of humerus, ulna, and radius connecting to middle phalanges 2-5

93

What is the flexor carpi ulnaris?

originates at distal medial epicondyle of humerus and connects to 5th metacarpal carpals

94

What is the flexor carpi radialis?

originates at medial epicondyle of humerus and connects to 2nd and 3rd metacarpals

95

What is triceps brachii? Where are they located? What is their function?

originates at inferior to glenoid cavity and posterior surface of humerus and connecting to olecranon process of ulna. Its function is to extend forearm and extend and adduct humerus

96

What is the extensor digitorum?

originates at lateral epicondyle of humerus and connects to phalanges 2-5

97

What is the extensor carpi ulnaris?

originates at lateral epicondyle of humerus and connects to 5th metacarpal

98

What is the extensor carpi radialis longus?

originates at lateral epicondyle of humerus and connects to 2nd and 3rd metacarpal

99

What is the pronator teres?

originates at distal humerus and coronoid process of ulna and connects to middle shaft of radius