Week 6 part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 6 part 1 Deck (93)
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31

What is used for assessment of tubal patency in patients with infertility?

Hysterosalpingography

32

What cancer are ascites, omental and peritoneal noduels common in?

Ovarian cancer

33

StGING of ovarian cancer uses what imaging?

CT

34

What is best method for extablishing abnormally thickened endometrium in post menopausal patient with PMB?

Transvaginal ultrasound

35

Average age of menopause?

51

36

Early menopause definition?

LESS than 45, premature is less than 40

37

Late menopause defnition?

Over 54

38

What cells secrete oestrogens?

Granulosa cells

39

What hormone proliferates endometrium, secondary sexual characteristics, hair distribution, body shape and fat distribution?

Oestrogen

40

What three factors can raise FSH and LH?

Prior to ovulation
Raised with stopping COCOP or dep
Raised with breastfeeding or SSRIs

41

Hot flushes - 60-80% women, average 2 yrs, last 3-5 mins
Night sweats
Palpitations
Insomnia
Joint aches
Headaches

Menopause

42

6 treatments for menorrhagia in menopause?

1. Mefenamic acid
2. Tranexamic acid
3. Protesterones
4. Intrauterine system
5. Endometrial ablation
6. Hysterectomy

43

List some benefits of HRT in menopause?

1. Symptom control
2. Reduced osteoporotc fracture
3. Reduced bowel cancer
4. Possibly protective alzheimers

44

List some disadvantages of HRT for menopause?

Breast cancer
Gallbladder disease

45

Give two uterine causes for DUB?

1. Endometrial polyps
2. Endometrial hyperplasia

46

When do endometrial [polpys often occur?

Around/after menopause

47

What might persistent oestrogen stimulation cause?

Endometrial hyperplasia

48

Peak incidence of endometrial carcinoma?

50-60 years - in young women consider underlying predisposition e.g. PCOS or lynch syndrome

49

What are most endometrial carcinomas/

Adenocarcinomas

50

What are the two main clinico-pathological types of endometrial carcinoma?

1. Endometriod - type I 80%
2. Serous (and clear cell) - type II

51

What are endometrioid carcinomas related to and associated with?

Related to unopposed oestrogen
Associated with atypical hyperplasia

52

What type of endometrial carcinoma: Not associated with unopposed oestrogen
Affect elderly post‐menopausal women
TP53 often mutated

Serous (and all clear cell, type II tumours)

53

What endometrial type tumours have PTEN, KRAS and PIK3CA mutations, associated with atypical hyperplasia as precurosr lesion, microsatellite instability

Type I tumours - endometrioid and micunous

54

Known risk factor for endometrial cancer?

Obesity - associated with endocrine and infalmmatory effects of adipose tissue, adipocytes express aromatase that converts ovarian androgens into oestrogens - inducing proliferation of endometrium

55

What is Lynch syndrome?

Cancer predisposition syndrome - high risk of colorectal cancer, endometrial cancerand ovarian.

56

What is inheritance like in Lynch syndrome?

Due to defective DNA mismatch repair gene, autosomal dominant inheritance

57

What do lynch syndrome tumours show which is a characteristic of defective mismatch repair?

Microsatellite instability MSI

58

wHAT TYPE of endometrial carcinoma has TP53 mutation and overexpression?

Type II - serous and clear cell phenotypes

59

What is precursor lesion for endometrial carcinoma type II ?

Serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma

60

Which type of endometrial carcinoma is more aggressive?

Type II - serous and clear cell