Flashcards in Week 6 part 1 Deck (93)
What is used for assessment of tubal patency in patients with infertility?
What cancer are ascites, omental and peritoneal noduels common in?
StGING of ovarian cancer uses what imaging?
What is best method for extablishing abnormally thickened endometrium in post menopausal patient with PMB?
Average age of menopause?
Early menopause definition?
LESS than 45, premature is less than 40
Late menopause defnition?
What cells secrete oestrogens?
What hormone proliferates endometrium, secondary sexual characteristics, hair distribution, body shape and fat distribution?
What three factors can raise FSH and LH?
Prior to ovulation
Raised with stopping COCOP or dep
Raised with breastfeeding or SSRIs
Hot flushes - 60-80% women, average 2 yrs, last 3-5 mins
6 treatments for menorrhagia in menopause?
1. Mefenamic acid
2. Tranexamic acid
4. Intrauterine system
5. Endometrial ablation
List some benefits of HRT in menopause?
1. Symptom control
2. Reduced osteoporotc fracture
3. Reduced bowel cancer
4. Possibly protective alzheimers
List some disadvantages of HRT for menopause?
Give two uterine causes for DUB?
1. Endometrial polyps
2. Endometrial hyperplasia
When do endometrial [polpys often occur?
What might persistent oestrogen stimulation cause?
Peak incidence of endometrial carcinoma?
50-60 years - in young women consider underlying predisposition e.g. PCOS or lynch syndrome
What are most endometrial carcinomas/
What are the two main clinico-pathological types of endometrial carcinoma?
1. Endometriod - type I 80%
2. Serous (and clear cell) - type II
What are endometrioid carcinomas related to and associated with?
Related to unopposed oestrogen
Associated with atypical hyperplasia
What type of endometrial carcinoma: Not associated with unopposed oestrogen
Affect elderly post‐menopausal women
TP53 often mutated
Serous (and all clear cell, type II tumours)
What endometrial type tumours have PTEN, KRAS and PIK3CA mutations, associated with atypical hyperplasia as precurosr lesion, microsatellite instability
Type I tumours - endometrioid and micunous
Known risk factor for endometrial cancer?
Obesity - associated with endocrine and infalmmatory effects of adipose tissue, adipocytes express aromatase that converts ovarian androgens into oestrogens - inducing proliferation of endometrium
What is Lynch syndrome?
Cancer predisposition syndrome - high risk of colorectal cancer, endometrial cancerand ovarian.
What is inheritance like in Lynch syndrome?
Due to defective DNA mismatch repair gene, autosomal dominant inheritance
What do lynch syndrome tumours show which is a characteristic of defective mismatch repair?
Microsatellite instability MSI
wHAT TYPE of endometrial carcinoma has TP53 mutation and overexpression?
Type II - serous and clear cell phenotypes
What is precursor lesion for endometrial carcinoma type II ?
Serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma