1. wk 2 Celluar Rxn to injury (f) Flashcards Preview

T3- Patho unit 1 > 1. wk 2 Celluar Rxn to injury (f) > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1. wk 2 Celluar Rxn to injury (f) Deck (77):
1

What are three irriversable changes that occur to the cell membrane that is irriversable

1. damage to the plasma membrane- loss of enzy, co-enzy, and RNA
2. vacuolization of mitochondria- has fluid inside therefore looking empty
3. release of lysosomal enzymes- digest cytoplasm

2

coagulative necrosis causes ____ to the ribosome

disaggregated

3

coagulative necrosis causes ___ & ___ to the nucleus

1. condensed chromatin
2. shriveled membrane

4

coagulative necrossi causes ____ & ____ to the mitoch.

swelling & calcification

5

_____: snall dense nucleus

pyknosis

6

_____: fragmentation of the nucleus

karyorrhexis

7

_____: dissolution of nucleus by lysosomal enzymes

karyolysis

8

Damage of the nucleus can cause (3) irriversable conditions

pyknosis
karyorrhexis
karyolysis

9

during early necrotic cells conditions what (3) c.c. are seen within the cell

1. increase cytoplasmic eosinophilia
2. loss of cytoplasmic RNA
3. Nucleus bc small pyknosis

10

______: death of group of cel;s within a living body caused by injurious agent

necrosis

11

what are three nuclear changes during post-necrosis changes

1. pyknosis
2. karyorrhexis
3. karyolysis

12

_____ is a cytoplasmic change during cell breakdown

swollen cytoplasm

13

_______ is an architectural change during necrosis

denaturation

14

_____ cells preserve the outline of the original tis during denaturation of proteins

necrotic cells

(cell lysis - will not preserve the structure)

15

cell ______ : the necrotic tis appears without structure during enzymatic digestion

cell lysis

(necrotic cells- will keep the structure)

16

What is the most common type of necrosis

coagulative necrosis

17

***coagulative necrosis occurs in all areas of the body except ____ &____

brain & abscesses

18

What is the cause of coagulative necrosis

ischemia (lack of O2)

19

Mechanism of coagulative necrosis is cell injury that causes intracellular ____

acidosis

20

There is inactivation of _____ during coagulative necrosis. Therefore, the cell will still maintain it's shape

lysosomal enzymes

- there is denaturation of cytoplasmic protein

21

a cell that appears pale, firm and swollen has undergone ______ necrosis

coagulative necrosis

22

_____ zone is seen where cells are starting to die but have not quite yet died

hemorrhagic zone

23

_____: means no oxygen

anoxic

24

The body will tx the dying area as a foreign body by:

sending more blood to it to cause acute inflam. This seals off the area from the healthy area

25

c.c.___________: mechanism is cell lysis prevailing over protein denaturation

colliquative (liquefactive) necrosis

26

the necrotic tis of ______ is soft and liquid like

colliquative (liquefactive) necrosis

27

c.c. a stroke is caused by _____ necrosis

colliquative (liquefactive) necrosis

28

an abcess indicates ____ infection

bacterial infection

29

What are two causes of colliquative (liquefactive) necrosis

1. necrotic lesion of brain
2. suppurative inflam. (abscess)


- suppurative means pus

30

Cerebral infarction is caused by ____ necrosis

liquefactive necrosis

31

the appearance of ____ necrosis appears cheesy white

caseous necrosis

32

_____ causes caseous necrosis

TB

33

What are the 3 mechanisms of caseous necrosis

1. coagulative necrosis w/ partial liquefaction
2. necrotic cells neither retain their outline or disappear by lysis - (crumbly cheese)
3. fragmented coagulated cell debris

34

caseous necrosis is a combo of ___ & ____ necrosis

coagulative & liquefactive necrosis

35

what is the major characteristic of caseous necrosis

granulomateous inflam

36

Durig caseous necrosis areas of cavitation in the tiss can occur called _____

cystic spaces

- the debris can be drained out by the bronchi whe it is in the lungs

37

__________ necrosis is caused by trauma to fatty tis

traumatic fat necrosis

38

traumatic fat necrosis is most prevalent in ___ & ___ tis

breast & subcutaneous tis

39

Mechanism of traumatic fat necrosis

acute infl and fibrosis to the intracellular fat

40

in fibrinoid necrosis there is a lost to the normal structure, it is replaced by ____ material that resembles fibrin

eosinophilic material

41

2 causes of fibrinoid necrosis

1. malignant hypertension
2. autoimmune dx

(damage to the wall of blood vessels)

42

(fibrinoid necrosis) malignant hypertension: necrosis of _____ of arterioles

tunica media of arterioles

- causes leaakage of plasma protein & deposition of fibrin

43

_____ arthritis is an ex. of fibriod necrosis

rheumatoid arthritis
- breakdown of products of collagen & fibrin

44

_______: mass necrosis of tis due to vascular occlusion followed by putrefaction

gangrene

45

_______ gangrene occurs in the toes and feet due to gradual occlusion of arteries

dry cangrene

46

**dry gangrene is ____ necrosis

coagulative necrosis

47

appearance of dry gangrene is :

dry, shrunken, mummified and black

48

_________: appears btw gangrenous area and adject living tissue

line of demarcation

49

Wet gangrene occurs in ____ injures and ____

crush injuries

intestinal strangulation
(the venous blood is trapped and can not leave)

50

___ gangrene appears swollen, moist and black

wet gangrene

51

** there is ____ necrosis in wet gangrene

liquefactive necrosis

52

____ is the name of the bact that causes gas gangrene

clostridium perfringens

53

________: is a condition caused by a contamination of deep wounds involving muscles with clostridium perfringens

gas gangrene

54

upon palpation of a joint with _____ there will be crackling sensation

gas gengrene
(bact: clostridium perfringens)

55

what is the difference btw apoptosis and necrosis

necrosis: tiss (many cell) death

apoptsis: cell death to one cell

56

_____: death of single cells within clusters of other cells

apoptosis

57

**What is the most common cause of cellular injury

hypoxia

- ischemia : decrease blood supply
- inadequate O2 in blood
- loss of O2 carrying capacity in blood

58

brain cells can't survive w/o O2 for more than __-__ mins

3-5 mins

59

myocardial fibers, hepatocytes & renal epithelium can last for __-__ hrs without O2

0.5-2 hours

60

skin and Skeletal M can go without O2 for _____

several hours

61

Hypoxia interferes with aerobic respiration in _____

mitochondria

(oxidative phosphorylation & ATP generation)

62

During hypoxia there is a loss of ATP dependent NA+/K+ pump this causes : (3)

1. cloudy appearance of swollen cells due to dispersion of cytoplasmic organelles

2. cell membrane shows blunting of microvilli

3. changes in cytoplasmic organelles

63

there is swelling of the _____ during hypoxia

endoplasmic reticulum

64

swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum during hypoxia causes (3):

1. hydropic degeneration : swelling

2. detached ribosomes - decrease protein synthesis

3. ER appears fragmented (myelin figures)

65

an accumulation of ER fragments during hypoxia is called ____

myelin figures

66

Changes in (3) organelles will occur during hypoxia

1. swelling of ER

2. Swelling of Mitochondria: impaired ATP synthesis

3. Swelling of lysosomes

67

Metabolic changes during hypoxia will cause cell to use anaerobic glycolysis. This will cause pyruvate to be reduced to lacate and result in ____

acidosis - denaturing the structural and enzymatic proteins

68

what is the first manifestation of cell injury that will be seen

cellular swelling

69

A vacuole is a _____ inside a cell

a space or a cavity

70

What are (2) non-lethal reversible changes after an injury

1. cellular swelling

2. fatty changes

71

________: is caused by release of pancreatic enzymes into surrounding tis

enzymatic fat necrosis

72

______ are patches formed of necrotic fat cells, calcification, and fibrosis

chalky white patches

73

______: death of single cells within clusters of other cells

apoptosis

(necrosis is death of many cells)

74

During the apoptotic bodies there is formation of ___ that separate into bodies

blebs

75

**______ are apoptotic bodies by the liver cells

councilman bodies

76

______: What is the most common form of cellular injury

hypoxia

77

(3) causes of Hypoxia

1. ischemia from decrease blood supply
2. inadequate O2 of blood
3. loss of O2 carrying capacity