Dani - ch 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Dani - ch 7 Deck (57):
1

______: the replacement of a damaged tissue by a new healthy one

repair

2

____: replacement of injured cells by new parenchymal cells of the same type by division of adjacent ones

regeneration (restitution)

3

____: replacement of lost tissue by scar formation

organization

4

cells of the body can be divided into 3 groups according to their regenerative capacity

labile
stable
permanent

5

labile cells: normally divide actively throughout life to replace continually lost cells:
- ___ ___ cells
- ___ cells of gut mucosa
- ____ stem cells

surface epithelial
crypt
hematopoietic

6

labile cells: following injury, surviving cells proliferate rapidly to ____ lost ones --> ___-___ state

replace
pre-injury

7

stable cells:
long life span --> very ___ rate of divisioin

slow

8

stable cells:
- they remain in ___ phase for long periods, retain capacity to enter the ___ cycle when needed

intermitotic
mitotic

9

stable cells:
replace damaged cell
- ___ cells of solid organs
___ cells

parenchymal
mesenchymal

10

healing in tissues with stable cells occurs either by ____ or ____ ____

regeneration
scar formation

11

regeneration
- when enough ____ parenchymal cells remain + intact CT ____ in area of necrosis

viable
framework

12

scar formation
- when CT framework is ___

destroyed

13

permanent cells: no capacity for ___ division in post natal life

mitotic

14

3 types of permanent cells

neurons
myocardial cells
skeletal muscle cells

15

injury to tissue with permanent cells is always followed by a ___ formation (no ___ is possible)

scar
regeneration

16

scar formation
- replacement of injured area by a ___ form of tissue

simpler

17

scar formation
- loops of capillaries supported by ___

myofibroblasts

18

scar formation
- ____ cells may be present

inflammation

19

scar formation
- actively contracts to ___ would size, may result in ____

decrease
stricture

20

5 phases of scar formation

preparation
growth
maturation
contraction
strengthening

21

phase 1 of scar formation
- preparation of the area by removal of ___ tissue

necrotic

22

phase 2 of scar formation
- growth of highly vascularized CT from surrounding ___ tissue

healthy

23

phase 2 of scar formation (growth)
- ____ cells proliferate as solid buds, come canalized into new ___

endothelial
capillaries

24

phase 2 of scar formation (growth)
- ___ are stimulated to proliferate and secrete: collagen, elastic and reticular fibes, x-cellular matrix and formation of actin and myosin

fibroblasts

25

phase 2 of scar formation (growth)
- fibronectin
- glycoprotein derived from plasm promotes ___ and is ____ to fibroblasts and promotes organization

angiogenesis
chemotactic

26

phase 3 of scar formation
- maturation of granulation tissue is ____, ___ and deep red because of new ___

soft
fleshy
capillaries

27

phase 3 of scar formation (maturation)
- collagen content progressively ___ whereas capillaries and fibroblasts ____

increase
decrease

28

phase 4 of scar formation
- contraction ___ size of scar

decreases

29

phase 4 of scar formation (contraction)
- early due to active contraction of ___ in the myofibroblasts, later due to collagen molecule itself

actomyosin

30

phase 5 of scar formation
- strenghtening due to ___ formation of collagen and changes in collagen type

increase

31

3 types of skin wounds

abrasion
incision and laceration
wounds with epidermal defect

32

abrasion:
- removal of ___ part of epidermis
- intact basal cell layer (___ cells) regenerate the epithelium ____ scarring

superficial
labile
without

33

incision (cut) and laveration (tear)
- ___ and ___ are involved
- healing is ___: no ___, ___ __ and minimal ___ ___

epidermis
dermis
rapid
infection
foreign materials
tissue loss

34

wound with epiermal defect
- loss of large areas of ___ and ___ of underlying dermis
- phase of inflammation precedes the repair = ___ intention

epidermis
necrosis
2nd

35

healing is rapid = ____ intention

first

36

phase of inflammation precedes the repair = ___ intention

2nd

37

2 types of wound healing

first intention
second intention

38

first intention healing
- __ wounds
- edges in __ approsition
- ___-___
- minimal __ ___

clean
close
non-infected
tissue loss

39

first intention healing
- ___ gap in dermis and epidermis fills with ___ blood forming a ___ that seals the wound opening

small
clotted
scar

40

first intention healing
- cells of the basal layer at edges of the would begin to ___ --> continuity of epidermis is __-___ hours

divide
24-48

41

first intention healing
- wound in the adjacent dermis heals by ___ formation; scar is initially __ because of vascularity, gradually turns ____

scar
pink
white

42

first intention healing
- tensile strength of the young scar is poor at first and increases to ___% of normal skin after 1 month and ___% after 4 months

40
80

43

second intention healing
- extensive ___
- secondary ___
- ____ body
- ___ wounds
- ____

necrosis
infection
foreign
large
inflammation

44

second intention healing
- healing is similar to first but
-- needs more ___
-- much more ___ tissue
-- bigger ___

time
granulation
scar

45

5 causes of defective wound healing
- failure of synthesis of __ fibers
- excessive ___ production
- ____ factors
- ___ ___
- excessive levels of ____

collagen
collagen
local
diabetes mellitus
corticosteroids

46

defective wound healing
failure of synthesis of collagen fibers due to a deficiency of ___ and ___ ___

protein
vit C

47

___-___ syndrome:
- inherited disease
- deficiency of enzymes involved in collagen synthesis --> abnormal collagen

ehlers-danlos

48

ehlers-danlos syndrome:
- ___ wound healing
- ___ skin
- ___ elasticity of skin
- ___ bruisability
- ____ of joints

impaired
fragile
increased
easy
hyperextensibility

49

defective wound healing:
excessive collagen production:
- nodular masses of collagen (___) at site of skin ___

keloids
injury

50

keloids common in ___ and ___ ___

blacks
familial tendency

51

local factors that affect wound healing
- ___ body
- ___ tissue
- ___, ___ formation
- abnormal blood supply as ___ or impaired ___ drainage

foreign
necrotic
infection, abscess
ischemia; venous

52

diabetes mellitus
- ___ blood supply
- ___ susceptibility to infection

decreased
increased

53

high level of corticosteroids
- interfere with ___
- ___ AA metabolites
- ___ collagen formation

phagocytosis
decrease
decrease

54

platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)
- proliferation of ___
- ___ wound healing

fibroblasts
enhances

55

epithelial growth factor (EGF)
- proliferation of ___ cells and ___

epithelial
fibroblasts

56

IL-1 and TNF
- ___ for fibroblasts
- ___ collagen synthesis
- fibrogenic ___

chemotactic
increase
cytokines

57

thombin
- ___ mitosis

fibroblast