dani - ch 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in dani - ch 4 Deck (60):
1

atrophy of cell
- decrease in the size of cell by loss of cell substance --> ___ metabolic and functional activity

decrease

2

atrophy of organ
- decrease in size due to a decrease in ___ of cell or ___ of cells

size
number

3

mechanism of atrophy = ____ response

adaptive

4

pathogenesis of atrophy
- ___ in amount of cytoplasm
- ___ in number of cytoplasmic organelles
- marked ___ in number of autophagic vacuoles where cytoplasmic organelles are degraded by ___ enzymes
- resistant depris accumulate in ____ like ___

decrease
decrease
increase
lysosomal
lipfuscin

5

physiological atrophy:
- ___ vessels and ductus arteriosus
- ___ after puberty
- ___, ___ and ___ after puberty
- ___ atrophy in elderly men
- reduction in ___ ___ in elderly

umbilical
thymus
ovaries; breasts and uterus
testicular
muscle mass

6

____ atrophy: decrease in function (skeletal muscles and bones in immobilized fractured limb)

disuse

7

___ atrophy: loss of innervation

denervation

8

____ atrophy: loss of blood supply (hypoxia and atherosclerosis)

ischemic

9

___ atrophy: hypoxia --> atrophy of skin and subcutaneous tissue over sacrum in bedridden patients or atrophy of BVs due to mass/tumor)

pressue

10

loss of ___ stimulation can lead to atrophy (menopause and cancer treatments)

endocrine

11

____ atrophy: lack of nutrition

nutritional

12

___-____ atrophy: corticosteroids applied topically --> skin atrophy

hormone-induced

13

aging can cause brain atrophy in ___ ___

senile dementia

14

___: increase size of a tissue or organ due to increase size of an individual cell

hypertrophy

15

mechanism of hypertrophy: ___ response to increased functional demand of tissues made up of permanent cells (____ divide)

adaptive
cannot

16

pathogenesis of hypertrophy:
- ____ amount of cytoplasm
- ___ number of cytoplasmic organelles

increase
increase

17

pathological hypertrophy
- ___ functional demand
- ____ hormonal stimulation

increase
increase

18

pathological hypertrophy
increased functional demand is seen in the left ventricle of ____ patients

hypertensive

19

pathological hypertrophy
increased hormonal stimulation is seen in ___ due to secretion of GH

acromegaly

20

physiologic hypertrophy:
- increased functional demand like ___ muscles in body builders

striated

21

physiologic hypertrophy:
- increased hormonal stimulation as in uterine muscles during ___

pregnancy

22

____: increase size of an organ or tissue as a result of increased number of component cells

hyperplasia

23

mechanism of hyperplasia:
- ADAPTIVE response to increase functional demand of tissue made up of ___ or ___ cells (___ divide)

labile
stable
can

24

____, ____ and __ ___ cells have little or no ability to become hyperplastic

heart
nerve
skeletal muscle

25

physiologic hyperplasia:
- hormonal
- epithelium of female breast at ___
- normal ___ cycle

puberty
menstrual

26

physiologic hyperplasia:
- compensatory
liver cells following partial ___

hepatectomy

27

pathological hyperplasia
- endometrium due to ___ estrogen stimulation
- adrenal glands due to ___ secretion of ACTH

excessive
increase

28

in hyperplasia there is ___ stimulus

known

29

hyperplasia is ____

reversible

30

the cells in hyperplasia look ___

normal

31

neoplasia may occur ____ stimulus

without

32

neoplasia is ____

irreversible

33

neoplasia is ___ in malignant

abnormal

34

____: replacement of one adult mature cell type by another cell type

metaplasia

35

mechanism of metaplasia: adaptive replacement of cells that are sensitive to stress by more __ ones (____ change)

resistant
reversible

36

___ metaplasia: replacement of columnar ciliated epithelium of the respiratory tract --> stratified squamous epithelium in smokers

squamous

37

___ metaplasia: replacement of the normal stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus --> mucous-secreting epithelium in reflux esophagitis (hiatal hernia)

glandular

38

__ ____: herniation of a portion of the gastric funds alongside the esophagus

paraesophageal hernia

39

____ metaplasia in scars and areas of muscle trauma

osseous

40

___: abnormality in maturation and differentiation of epithelium (___ condition)

dysplagia
premalignant

41

causes of dysplagia
- prolonged ____
- prolonged ___
- exposure to _____

irritation
inflammation
carninogenics

42

___ ___ detects dysplagia int he cervix

pap smear

43

pathological features of dysplagia
- ___ rate of cellular multiplication: numerous mitotic figures --> ___ epithelial bulk

increased
increased

44

pathological features of dysplagia
- loss of ___ of cells (ie pleomorphism)

uniformity

45

pathological features of dysplagia
- loss of epithelial _____ (ie squamous epithelium may not show the normal differentiation from basal cells)

polarity

46

nucleus is dysphagia
___ size
___ chromatin content
___ chromatin

increase size
increase chromatin content
abnormal chromatin

47

___ ____: abnormal deposition of calcium salts in soft tissues

pathological calcification

48

pathological calcification to the naked eye has fine white ___ or ___

granules
clumps

49

microscopic pathological calcification
- initiation of intracellular calcification occurs in the ____ of dead or dying cells

MITOCHONDRIA

50

microscopic pathologic calcification
- progressive deposition of several layers --> ___ appearance in the intracellular, extracellular or both

lamellated

51

____ ___ = lamellated appearance

psammoma bodies

52

___ calcification: deposition of calcium salts in dead or dying tissue

dystrophic

53

3 examples of dystrophic calcification

atherosclerosis
necrotic tissue
heart valve in rheumatic fever

54

___ calcification: deposition salts in normal tissue where there is hypercalcemia

metastatic

55

4 causes of metastatic calcification

hyperparathyroidism
vit D intoxication
hyperthyroidism
bone sumors

56

____: failure of development of an organ or structure with in it

agenesis
aplasia

57

_____: failure of the development of a lumen in normally tubular structure

atresia

58

___: failure of an organ to attain its normal size

hypoplasia

59

_____: failure of normal organ differentiation or persistence of primitive embryological structures

maldifferentiation
dysgenesis

60

____: development of mature tissue in an inappropriate site

ectopia
heteropia