Dani - ch 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Dani - ch 2 Deck (87):
1

when the cell is exposed to excessive physiologic or pathologic stimuli, it may undergo: (2)

adaptation
cell injury

2

___ is the most common cause of cell injury

hypoxia

3

___ is due to decreased blood supply

ischemia

4

___: inadequate oxygenation of blood, or loss of oxygen carrying capacity of blood

hypoxia

5

physical agents that cause cellular injury: (4)

trauma
thermal injury
radiation
electric injury

6

chemical agents that cause cellular injury: 2

therapeutic agents
non-therapeutic agents

7

infectious agents that cause cellular injury: 4

viruses
bacteria
fungi
parasites

8

genetic defects can cause ___ ___

cellular injury

9

nutritional imbalances can cause cellular injury: 2

deficiency
excess

10

2 immunologic reactions that cause cellular injury

hypersensitivity
autoimmune disease

11

cell damage is reversible or irreversible, depends on:
- ___ of the agent and its severity
- ____ of insult
- ____ of cell
- ____ of tissue to regenerate

nature
duration
type
ability

12

___ cells cant survive without oxygen for more than a few minutes (3-5)

brain

13

myocardial fibers, hepatocytes, and renal epithelium cant survive without oxygen for more than __-__ hours

.5-2

14

skeletal muscles and skin cant live without oxygen for more than ___ hours

several

15

4 intracellular systems are more vulnerable to cell injury:

cell membranes
aerobic respiration and ATP generation
genetic apparatus
protein and enzyme synthesis

16

reversible changes:
- ___ interferes with aerobic respiration in mitochondria
- loss of ___-dependent Na+/K+ pump in plasma membrane
- intracellular accumulation of ____, diffusion of ___ and osmotic gain of ___

na+
K+
water

17

intracellular accumulation of Na+, diffusion of K+, and osmotic gain of water leads to:
- ___ cloudy appearance of swollen cells due to dispersion of cytoplasmic organelles
- cell membrane shows ___ of microvilli

cloudy
blunting

18

changes in cytoplasmic organelles:
- swelling in ___ ___, ___ and ___

endoplasmic reticulum
mitochondria
lysosomes

19

swelling of endoplasmic reticulum:
- ___ degeneration
- detaches ribosomes --> ___ protein synthesis
- appears ___, accumulation of these fragments is known as ___ ___

hydropic
decreased
fragmented
myelin figures

20

swelling of mitochondria
- further impairment of ___ synthesis

ATP

21

metabolic changes:
- ____ aerobic respiration
- __ rate of anaerobic glycolysis to maintain energy requirement of cell

decreased
increased

22

cellular swelling: ___ degree of intracellular edema and ___ manifestation of cell injury

minor
1st

23

cellular swelling to the naked eye:
- ___ size and weight of organ
- ___

increased
pallor

24

cellular swelling microscopically:
- cytoplasm is ___ and ___ with accumulation of small amounts of water
- further __ in fluid content --> swelling of cytoplasmic ____ --> ___ cytoplasmic vacuoles (hydropic degeneration)

pale; swollen
increase; organelles; clear

25

fatty change: accumulation of fat within ___ cells of liver (due to hypoxia, alcohol or diabetes)

parenchymal

26

fatty change:
- membrane-bound lysosomes coalesce together producing fatty ___

cysts

27

fatty change:
- appears as ___ due to accumulation of fatty droplets

vacuoles

28

irreversible damage of cell membranes:
- damage of cell membrane --> ____ of protein essential enzymes, co-enzymes, and RNA

loss

29

irreversible damage of cell membrane:
- ___ of mitochondria

vacuolization

30

irreversible damage of cell membrane:
- release of ___ enzymes --> ___ of cytoplasm

lysosomal
digestion

31

____: small dense nucleus

pyknosis

32

___: fragmentation of the nucleus

karyorrhexis

33

___: dissolution of nucleus by lysosomal enzymes

karylolysis

34

___: death of group of cells within a living body caused by injurious agent

necrosis

35

post necrotic changes to the nucleus (3)

pyknosis
karyorrhexis
karyolysis

36

post necrotic changes to the cytoplasm = ___

swollen

37

post necrotic changes to the architecture: depends on whether ___ of proteins or ___ digestion prevails

denaturation
enzymatic

38

___ of proteins: necrotic cells preserve the outline of original tissue

denaturation

39

___ digestion: cell lysis, necrotic tissue, appears without strucutre

enzymatic

40

____ necrosis: most common type

coagulative

41

cause of coagulative necrosis: ____

ischemia

42

mechanism of coagulative necrosis: cell injury --> intracellular ____ --> denaturation of ___ protein and ___ protein --> ___ cells retain their outline

acidosis
cytoplasmic
enzyme

43

naked eye of coagulative necrosis: area appears ___, ___ and ___

pale
firm
swollen

44

microscopic image of coagulative necrosis:
- cells ___ of nuclei appear as a mass of __ homogenous cytoplasm
- keep ___ for several days till removed by phagocytosis

devoid
outline

45

colliquative (liquefactive) necrosis mechanism:
- cell ___ prevails over protein denaturation

lysis

46

colliquative (liquefactive) necrosis mechanism:
- necrotic tissue looks ___, ___ - like

soft, liquid

47

colliquative (liquefactive) necrosis mechanism:
- causes of necrotic tissue in the brain: more abundant ___ enzymes and lack of good ___ support

lysosomal
structural

48

colliquative (liquefactive) necrosis mechanism:
- ____ inflammation: potent proteolytic enzymes of neutrophils

suppurative

49

in caseous necrosis, necrotic tissue appears ___ and ___

white
cheesy

50

cause of caseous necrosis

TB

51

mechanism of caseous necrosis
- ___ necrosis with partial ____

coagulative
liquefaction

52

mechanism of caseous necrosis
- necrotic tissue neither __ their outline nor __ by lysis

retain
disappear

53

mechanism of caseous necrosis
- appear as amorphous debris of ____ coagulated cells

fragmented

54

in caseous necrosis
- debris appears ____ ___ in color and is ___ and ____ in texture

grayish white
soft
friable

55

in caseous necrosis
- it resembles ___ ___

clumpy cheese

56

caseous necrosis in TB lymph node
- typical amorphous, eosinophilic, necrotic center is surrounded by ____ inflammation

granular

57

cause of enzymatic fat necrosis
- release of ___ enzymes to surrounding tissue

pancreatic

58

mechanism of enzymatic fat necrosis
- ___ and ___ attack plasm membrane of fat cells and ___ split TGs into fatty acids and glycerol

phospholipases
proteases
lipases

59

mechanism of enzymatic fat necrosis
- fatty acids combine with ___ --> calcium soaps: hard ___ ___ patches. formed of necrotic ___cells, ___ and ___

calcium
chalky white
fat
calcification
fibrosis

60

traumatic fat necrosis:
- ___ to fatty tissue

trauma

61

traumatic fat necrosis:
- release of ___ fat --> ___ inflammation and fibrosis --> ___ mass mistaken for breast cancer

intracellular
acute
firm

62

fibrinoid necrosis:
- ___ of normal structure, its replacement by ___ material that resembles fibrin

eosinophilic

63

2 causes of fibrinoid necrosis

malignant hypertension
autoimmune diseases

64

malignant hypertension in fibrinoid necrosis:
- necrosis of ___ ___ of arterioles, leakage of plasma membrane and deposition of __

tunica media
fibrin

65

autoimmune diseases in fibrinoid necrosis:
- ___ ___ in RA
- breakdown products of ___ and ___

synovial membranes
collagen
fibrin

66

___: mass necrosis of tissue due to vascular occlusion followed by putrefaction

gangrene

67

___ gangrene: occurs in toes and feet due to gradual occlusion of arteries --> coagulative necrosis

dry

68

in dry gangrene:
- necrotic tissue is ___, ___, ____ and ___

dry
shrunken
mummified
black

69

dy gangrene:
- ___ ___ ____ between gangrenous area and adjacent living tissue

line of demarcation

70

frostbite is ____ gangrene

dry

71

wet gangrene occurs in ___ and ___ ____

limbs and internal organs

72

wet gangrene: necrotic tissue is ___, ___ and ___

swollen
moist
black

73

wet gangrene = ____ necrosis

liquefactive

74

gas gangrene
- both necrosis and putrefaction are caused by ____

bacteria

75

gas gangrene
- due to contamination of ___ ___ involving muscles with ___ ___

deep wounds
clostridium perfringens

76

gas gangrene will have a ___ sensation on palpation

crackling

77

___: death of single cells within clusters of other cells

apoptosis

78

2 features of apoptosis

cell shrinkage
nucleus changes

79

in apoptosis:
- chromatin aggregates into ___ masses on nuclear membrane

irregular

80

nucleus breaks into ___ or more fragments in apoptosis

2

81

formation of apoptotic bodies:
- extensive sufaces ___ that separate into numerous ___ bodies

bled
apoptotic

82

formation of apoptotic bodies:
- ____ of apoptotic bodies by adjacent cells --> degraded by ___ enzymes

phagocytosis
lysosomal

83

physiological causes of apoptosis:
- development of ____ in hollow organs during embryogenesis

lumina

84

physiological causes of apoptosis:
- involution of ____ in adults

thymus

85

physiological causes of apoptosis:
- ___ of self reactive lymphocytes in thymus

deletion

86

pathological causes of apoptosis:
- cell injury in ___ ____ --> apoptotic bodies are taken by ___ cells

viral hepatitis
liver

87

apoptotic bodies are also known as ___ bodies

councilman