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Flashcards in Dani - ch 5 Deck (123):
1

____: vascular and cellular responses whose purpose is to localize or eliminate the injurious agents

inflammation

2

2 types of inflammation

acute
chronic

3

___ inflammation: transient process that occurs within a few minutes of injury and lasts for a short time; usually described by -itis preceded by the organ/tissue

acute

4

5 causes of acute inflammation
- ____ agents: bacteria, virus, parasites, protozoa
- ____ reaction
- ____ agents: trauma, hot, cold, radiation
- ____ agents: acids, alkalis or bacterial toxins
- tissue ____

infectious
hypersensitivity
physical
chemical
necrosis

5

____: due to blood vessels dilation; redness

rubor

6

___: due to increased pressure by exudate and by the following mediator; bradykinin and prostaglandins; pain

dolor

7

___: due to increased blood flow; increased heat

calor

8

___: due to accumulation of exudate; swelling

tumor

9

___ ___: due to pain and tissue damage; loss of function

functio laesa

10

___: fluid, protein, and blood cells escape from the vascular system --> interstitial tissue

exudation

11

___: ultrafiltrate of blood and plasme, result from imbalance across the vascular endothelium

transudate

12

___: excess of fluid in the interstitial tissue or body cavities; can be exudate or transudate

edema

13

___: purulent inflammatory exudate abundant in leukocytes and cell debris

pus

14

transudate
- ____ permeability
- ___ hydrostatic pressure

normal
increased

15

transudate
- ___ or ___ protein

no
low

16

transudate
- only ____ (ultra filtrate)

albumin

17

transudate
- cells = _____

0

18

transudate
specific gravity is ____

low

19

exudate
- ___ permeability

increased

20

exudate
- ___ protein content

high

21

exudate
- all proteins except ___

fibrinogen

22

exudate
- ___ cells

inflammatory

23

exudate
- specific gravity is ___

high

24

4 steps in acute inflammation

white line
flush
flare
wheal

25

3 phases of the triple response

flush
flare
wheal

26

1st step in triple response:
red line = ____

flush

27

flush is due to ____ ___

capillary dilation

28

momentary white line before triple response is due to ___ ___

arteriolar vasoconstriction

29

2nd step in triple response:
- red irregular area = ____

flare

30

flare is due to ___ ___

arteriolar dilation

31

3rd step in tripe response
- a swelling = ____

wheal

32

wheal is due to ____ caused by ___ permeability

edema
increased

33

hemodynamics
- changes in blood flow
- transient ____ of arterioles --> ___ of precapillary sphincters --> ___ of arterioles leads to blood flow and opening of new capillary bed

vasoconstriction
relaxation
vasodilation

34

____: opening of new capillary bed

hyperemia

35

slowing of circulation:
- vascular permeability and outpouring of fluid into intersitial tissue --> ____ blood viscosity --> ___ rate of blood flow

increased
decreased

36

hemodynamics - increased vascular permeability
- arteriolar dilation and increased blood flow --> ____ intravascular hydrostatic pressure --> ____

increased
transudate

37

immediate transient leakage due to ____ injury and ___ reactions

mild
hypersensitivity

38

immediate transient leakage mediated by ____, ___, and ___

histamine
serotonin
bradykinin

39

immediate transient leakage
- contraction of endothelial cells --> widening of ___ junctions (gapping)

intercellular

40

immediate transient leakage
- ____ leakage, ___ lived(___-___min)

immediate
short (15-20)

41

immediate sustained leakage
- caused by ___ injury

sever

42

immediate sustained leakage
- ___ leakage, ___ for long time till damaged vessel is repaired or thrombosed

immediate
sustained

43

delayed sustained leakage
- caused by ____ or ___ injury

mild
moderate

44

severe injury example

burn

45

mild/moderate injury examples

sunburn
x-ray
bacterial toxins

46

delayed sustained leakage
- endothelium is injured ___ or ____ causing intracellular gaps

direct
indirect

47

delayed sustained leakage
- leakge begins after __-__ hours and lasts for several ___ or ___

2-12
hours
days

48

___ of neutrophils: as blood flow slows, neutrophils fall out of central column and roll along endothelium

margination

49

___ of neutrophils: neutrophils adhere to endothelium by surface adhesioin molecules

pavementing
adhesion

50

____ of neutrophils: neutrophils insert pseudopods in intercellular junctions, squeeze their way, traverse basement membrane and escape to extravascular space

diapedesis
emigration

51

____: passage of blood cells through intact capillary walls and into the surrounding tissue

diapedesis

52

____: neutrophils move toward site of injury along concentration gradient of chemotactic agents

chemotaxis

53

neutrophils emigrate 1st in the first 12-24 hours
- later replaced by ___

monocytes

54

RBCs coalesce into ___ at central axis

rouleaux

55

____ - like a stack of coins

rouleaux

56

types of cells in acute inflammation are ____

neutrophils

57

neutrophils are present __-__hrs

6-24

58

types of cells in chronic inflammation are ____ and ____

monocytes
macrophages

59

monocytes and macrophages are present ___-___hrs

24-48

60

life span of a neutrophil is __-__ hrs

24-48

61

recognition of phagocytosis is through attachment to agen either directly or indirectly ____ or complement --- this is called ____

IgG
opsinization

62

engulfment in phagocytosis happens when the cytoplasm surrounds an agent, encloses it into a membrane-bound vacuole called a ____

phagosome

63

intracellular killing - oxygen DEPENDENT mechanism
- phagocytosis stimulates other cellular oxidative mechanism (____ ___) --> microbicidal derivatives and antimicrobil (___,___ and ___)

respiratory burst
O2
H2O2
HOCl

64

intracellular killing - oxygen INDEPENDENT mechanism
- phagosome fuses with ____(phagolysosome) --> release of ____ enzymes --> ___ agent

lysosome
lysosomal
degrade

65

inflammation process --> ___ to stop damage --> still alive bacteria is carried to ___ ___ to be filtered --> if fails --> lymph system --> ventricular circulation --> ____ or ____

fails
lymph node
bacteremia
septicemia

66

neutrophils account for ___-___% of all WBCs

60-70

67

neutrophils
- ___ nucleus
- __-__ lobes

segmented
1-4

68

___ are the 1st acute inflammatory cell

neutrophils

69

function of neutrophils is ____

phagocytosis (oxygen dependent and independent)

70

monocyte = _____ = ____ ____

macrophage
tissue histiocyte

71

monocyte accounts for ___-___ of all WBCs

4-8

72

monocyte has a ___ shaped nucleus

kidney

73

monocytes are ___-lived; replace neutrophils after __-__ days

long
1-2

74

monocytes are in the blood for ___ days and the tissues for ____ months

4
several

75

function of monocytes: ____

phagocytosis (large particles)

76

lymphocytes account for __-__% of all WBCs

25-30

77

lymphocytes are present in ___ inflammation and ___ viral or fungal infections

chronic
acute

78

eosinophils account for __-__% of all WBCs

1-4

79

eosinophils are present in ___ and ___ infections

allergy
parasitic

80

2 vasoactive amines

histamine
serotonin

81

3 sources of vasoactive amines

mast cells
basophils
platelets

82

action of vasoactive amines
- ___ of arterioles
- ___ permeability (intercellular gaps)

dilation
increased

83

duration of vasoactive amines
- ___ release
- ____ lived

immediate
short

84

bradykinin causes ___ of arterioles, ___ permeability, ___ and is __ lived and deactivated by ____

dilation
increased
pain
short
kininase

85

bradykinin is made through ____

kallikrein

86

fibrinopeptides
- ___ permeability
- ____ for neutrophils

increased
chemotactic

87

C3b: favors ____ (____)

phagocytosis
opsonin

88

C3a, C4a, C5a:
- ____ and ___ permeability
- ____
- stimulate mast cells to release ____

vasodilation
increase
anaphylatoxins
histamine

89

C5a: ___ to neutrophils and macrophages

chemotactic

90

cell membrane phospholipids release ___ __ which are activated by ____

arachidonic
phospholipase

91

____ inhibit phospholipase

corticosteroids

92

lipoxygenase cycle of AA produce ____

leukotrienes

93

leukotienes
- ___ permeability
- _____

increase
chemotaxis

94

cyclooxygenase cycle of AA produce 3 things

prostaglandin
thromboxane
prostacyclin

95

prostaglandin favors ____
thromboxane favors ____
prostacyclin favors ____

vasodilation
vasoconstriction
vasodilation

96

leukocyte product:
- oxygen derived free radicals
___ damage --> ___ permeability

endothelial
increased

97

leukocyte product:
- lysosomal enzymes
neutral proteases
____ damage --> ___ leakage

capillary
sustained

98

leukocyte product:
- acid proteases
___ bacteria and ___ debis

degrade
cellular

99

leukocyte product
- platelet activating factor:
____ of platelets --> release of ___ and ___ --> _____ vascular permeability

aggregation
histamine
serotonin
increase

100

2 cytokines

Interleukin - 1 (IL-1)
tumor necrosis factor (TNF)

101

IL-1 and TNF are produced by ____ and ___

lymphocytes
macrophages

102

action of cytokines:
- ___ effect: ___ synthesis of endothelial ___ molecules and ____

endothelial
adhesion
prostaglandins

103

action of cytokines
- release of ___ from basement membrane

neutrophils

104

action of cytokines
- ____ phase reaction

acute

105

3 acute phase reactions due to cytokines

fever
sleepiness
anorexia

106

endothelial cells make ____

prostaglandins

107

3 systemic clinical signs

fever
changes in WBC count
increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate

108

3 sequelaes of acute inflammation
- complete ____
- healing by ___
- progression to ___ ____

resolution
scar
chronic inflammation

109

serous acute inflammation
- ___ type
- excess thin ___ __ __ fluid

mildes
watery clear serous

110

examples of serous acute inflammation
- ____ in burn
- ___ ___ in herpes
- ___ of serous sacs

blisters
skin vesicles
inflammation

111

fibrinous inflammation:
____ form, virulent bacteria
rich in ___

severe
fibrinogen

112

examples of fibrinous inflammation
- lobar ___
- ____ of serous sacs

pneumonia
inflammation

113

catarrhal inflammation
___ inflammation of ___ ____
exudate rich with ____

mild
mucous membrane
mucus

114

exmaple of catarrhal inflammation

common cold

115

allergic inflammation
- ____
- many ____

hypersensitivity
eosinophils

116

2 examples of allergic inflammation

bronchial asthma
urticaria

117

pseudomembranous inflammation
- ___, affect mucous membrane, by ____ bacteria
- necrotic epithelium and inflammatory exudate --> ___ membrane replacing mucosa

severe
toxigenic
false

118

example of pseudomembranous inflammation

diphtheria

119

hemorrhagic inflammation
- ____, by highly virulent bacteria, viral or fungal agents
- excessive tissue ___ and ____

severe
necrosis
hemorrhage

120

3 examples of hemorrhagic inflammation

anthrax
plague
herpes simplex

121

suppurative inflammation
- ___ bacteria
- aggregation of neutrophils, tissue ____ and ____ into pus

necrosis
liquefaction

122

acute inflammation without neutrophils
- ___ and ___ infections

viral
rickettsial

123

inflammatory cells in acute inflammation without neutrophils

lymphocytes
plasma cells
lyphocytosis
neutropenia