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Flashcards in Dani - ch 3 Deck (74):
1

intracellular accumulation:
normal cells may ___ abnormal amounts of various substances

accumulate

2

intracellular accumulation:
- accumulation of cells can be either ____ or ____

transient
permanent

3

intracellular accumulation:
- may be ___ or may cause varying degrees of ___

harmless
injury

4

intracellular accumulation:
- substances may either be in ___ or ___

cytoplasm
nucleus

5

intracellular accumulation:
- substances may be synthesized by ___ cell or may be produced ____

affected
elsewhere

6

result in abnormal intracellular accumulation can be divided into 3 types

a normal endogenous substance
lack of enzyme
accumulation of an abnormal substance

7

result in abnormal intracellular accumulation can be a normal endogenous substnace is produced at a normal or increase rate, but the rate of metabolism is ___ to remove

inadequate

8

result in abnormal intracellular accumulation can be a lack of ____ needed for metabolism of a normal or abnormal endogenous substance

enzyme

9

result in abnormal intracellular accumulation can be an accumulation of an abnormal ___ substance

exogenous

10

a normal endogenous substance (abnormal metabolism) being accumulated happens in ____ ____ in the liver

fatty tissue

11

a lack of enzyme being accumulated happens in ____ _____ ____ (prevents the break down of substances)

lysosomal storage disease

12

abnormal exogenous substance (inability to degrade phagocytosed particles) being accumulated happens in ____ or ____ ____

carbon or silica particles

13

____= fatty change

steatosis

14

___ ___ (____): accumulation of TGs in cytoplam of parenchymal cells; appear as vacuoles; reversible

fatty change

15

fatty change is most often seen in the ____ and may also occur in 3 other organs

liver
heart
skeletal muscle
kidney

16

fatty change in the liver is most commonly caused by ____

alcohol

17

5 other reasons for fatty change in the liver other than alcohol

obesity
diabetes
hypoxia
hepatotoxic drugs
protein malnutrition

18

pathogenesis of fatty change in the liver can be caused by the ___ synthesis of triglycerides secondary to ___ in fatty acids

increase
increase

19

alcohol can cause excess ___ and ___ synthesis of fatty acids in the liver

lipolysis
decreased

20

obesity can cause ___ fat intake in the liver

increased

21

diabetes and corticosteroids can cause excess ___ in the liver

lipolysis

22

hypoxia and hepatotoxins can cause ___ oxidation of fatty acids in the liver

decreased

23

decreased mobilization of TGs from the liver and decreased apoprotein formation in the liver can be caused by ____

malnutrition

24

fatty change to the naked eye in the liver looks ____, ____ and ____ and feels ___ and ___

enlarged
yellow
greasy
soft
tender

25

fatty change microscopically in the liver has small clear fat ___ or large single one displacing the ____

vacuole
nucleus

26

fatty change microscopically
- ___ of contiguous cells --> fat vacuoles unite to form a fatty ___

rupture
cyst

27

alcohol used __ peripheral lipolysis, ___ FA synthesis and ___ FA oxidation

enhances
increase
decrease

28

fatty change in the heart is due to prolonged ___ and toxic ___

hypoxia
myocarditis

29

fatty change in the heart has yellow bands alternating with normal red-brown uninvoled bands aka ___ ___ and feels ___ and ___ to the naked eye

tabby cat
soft flabby

30

fatty change in the heart has fine fat vacuoles in rows within ___ ___

muscle fibers

31

fatty change in the kidney looks ____, ___ and ___

enlarged
pale
soft

32

fatty change in the kidney: fat vacuoles inside epithelial cells of ____ ___

concoluted tubules

33

fatty change in the kidney: in severe cases all structures are involved including the ____

glomeruli

34

in ____- cholesterol accumulated in smooth muscle cells and macrophages

atherosclerosis

35

in ____: cholesterol accumulated in subepithelial CT --> yellow plaques commonly around the eyes

hyperlipidemia

36

___= yellow plaques

xanthomas

37

___ = yellow plaques in the eyes

xanthelasma

38

in ___ of cell injury, lipid debris are phagocytosed --> lipid laden macrophages (foamy)

foci

39

_____ _____: accumulation of immunoglobulins in cytoplasm of malignant plasma cells --> rounded eosinophilic bodies

multiple myeloma

40

___ ___ = rounded eosinophilic bodies

russell bodies

41

___ ____ (Nephrotic syndrome) = eosinophilic droplets of protein are seen in the cells of proximal convoluted tubules due to abnormal filtering of albumin

heavy proteinuria

42

glycogen storage disease: glycogen can not be converted into glucose due to a congenital deficieny of ___ ___ ____

glucose 6 phosphatase

43

___ ___: abnormality of glucose metabolism; glycogen accumulates inside the cells of liver, distal portion of proximal convoluted tubules, beta cells of islet of langerhan, and heart muscle cells

diabetes mellitus

44

pigment accumulation: color substances can be either ___ or ___

exogenous
endogenous

45

exogenous pigment accumulation comes from 2 things

anthracosis
tattoo

46

endogenous pigment accumulation comes from 4 things

lipofuscin
melanin
hemosiderin
bilirubin

47

2 hemoglobin derived endogenous pigments

hemosiderin
bilirubin

48

____: accumulation of carbon particles or coal dust

anthracosis

49

anthracosis: picked by macrophages in the ____ --> transported by the lymph to regional ___ ____

alveoli
lymph nodes

50

2 effects of anthracosis: ___ of tissues and chronic ___ and ___

blackening
irritation
fibrosis

51

___: injected pigment is picked up by dermal macrophage and remains in skin for life

tattoo

52

___ is the wear and tear pigment

lipofuscin

53

lipofuscin is a fine, yellow brown ____ granule

intracytoplasmic

54

lipofuscin is made of degraded membranes of ____ orgnanelles

cytoplasmic

55

lipofuscin is made of 3 things

lipids
phospholipids
proteins

56

lipofuscin is seen in severe ___, advanced ___, progressive ___ and ___ of an organ

malnutrition
age
ischemia
atrophy

57

lipofuscin is most common seen in cells of the ___, ___ and ___

liver
heart
brain

58

lipofuscin: no functional ____

abnormality

59

____: brown/black color skin pigment

melanin

60

melanin: formed by ____ when tyrosinase enzyme converts tyrosine into dihydroxyphenylalanine

melanocytes

61

melanin protects skin from ___ rays

UV

62

melanin may be seen in some skin lesions as ___

melanomas

63

iron is stored as golden-yellow-brownm hemoglobin-derived ____ granules

hemosiderin

64

excess iron can be caused by an accumulation of ____ either locally/systemic

hemosiderin

65

local accumulation of hemosiderin = is a _____ ___

skin bruis

66

skin bruise is the lysis of ___

RBCs

67

systemic accumulation of iron --> hemosiderin ___ in many tissues

deposits

68

causes of systemic accumulation of hemosiderin:
- ___ absorption of iron
- impaired iron ____
- ____ anemia
- repeated blood ____

increase
utilization
hemolytic
transfusions

69

___ is derived from hemoglobin (non-iron)

bilirubin

70

increase serum level --> deposition of bilirubin in CT of skin, sclera and internal organs --> yellow greedn discoloration of ____

jaundice

71

jaundice results in
- ___ production of bilirubin
- ___ excretion
- ___ of bile flow

increase
decrease
obstruction

72

increased production of bilirubin is due to ___ destruction of RBCs as in ___ anemia

increase
hemolytic

73

decreased excretion of bilirubin is due to ___ diseases (hepatocellular jaundice)

liver

74

obstruction of bile flow can be due to cancer of the ___ of pancreas

head