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Flashcards in 10- Personality Deck (70)
1

the individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

personality

2

what we are aware of

conscious

3

outside of our awareness, but accessible

preconscious

4

a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories

unconscious

5

information processing of which we are unaware

contemporary view of unconscious

6

a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to their mind no matter how trivial or embarrassing

free association

7

Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions

psychoanalysis

8

a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives

id

9

demanding immediate gratification

pleasure principle

10

the largely conscious "executive" part of personality that mediates among the demands of id, superego, and reality

ego

11

satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain

reality principle

12

the part of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement and for future aspirations

superego

13

the childhood stages of development during which the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones

psychosexual stages

14

pleasure centers on the mouth

oral stage (0-18 months)

15

pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control

anal stage (18-36 months)

16

pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings

phallic stage (3-6 years)

17

dormant sexual feelings

latency stage (6-puberty)

18

maturation of sexual intents

genital stage (puberty on-)

19

a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father

Oedipus complex

20

the process by which children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos

identification

21

parallel to Oedipus complex but in girls

electra complex

22

a pleasure sensitive area of the body

erogenous zone

23

a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies of an easier psychosocial stage, in which conflicts were unresolved

fixation

24

the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

defense mechanism

25

the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness

repression

26

mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage

regression

27

mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites

reaction formation

28

mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others

projection

29

mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions

rationalization

30

mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulsed toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person

displacement

31

mechanism by which people re-channeled their unacceptable impulses into socially approached activities

sublimation

32

mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities

denial

33

m

Adler

34

a

Horney

35

;

Jung

36

a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species history

collective unconscious

37

childhood shapes personality and attachments; much of mental life is unconscious; struggle with inner conflicts among our wishes, fears, and values

psychodynamic theory

38

a personality test that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics

projective test

39

a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

40

most widely used projective test; a set of 10 inkblots; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots

Rorschach inkblot test

41

a theory of death-related anxiety; explores emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death

terror-management theory

42

one of the ultimate psychological needs that rises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved

self-actualization

43

go beyond ordinary consciousness

peak experiences

44

genuineness, acceptance, and empathy

sources of growth promoting climate

45

an attitude of total acceptance toward another person

unconditional positive regard

46

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"

self-concept

47

vague, subjective, individualistic, Western biased, naïve

criticisms to the humanistic perspective

48

a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act; description rather than explanation

trait

49

Introversion vs extroversion
Emotional stability vs instability
Personality questionnaire

Eysenck and Eysenck

50

Frontal love activity is _____ in extroverts and brain arousal is ____ in extroverts as well

Less; low

51

Questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors

Personality inventory

52

The most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests; originally developed to identify emotional disorders

Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory (MMPI)

53

A test developed by testing a pool if items and then selecting those that discriminate groups

Empirically derived test

54

Conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, extroversion

Big five factors

55

Views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits and their social context

Social-cognitive perspective

56

Bandura's thought that the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment

Reciprocal determinism

57

The extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless

Personal control

58

1- correlate people's feelings of control with their behaviors and achievements
2- experiment by raising or lowering people's sense of control

Ways to study personal control

59

Perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate

External locus of control

60

The perception that you control your own fate

Internal locus of control

61

The ability to control impulses and delay gratification

Self-control

62

Experiencing no control over repeated bad events leads to feeling hopeless

Learned helplessness

63

Having limitless experiences or choices brings information overload and a greater likelihood that we will feel regret over some of the unchosen options

Tyranny of choice

64

The scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive

Positive psychology

65

Assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions

Self

66

Overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders

Spotlight effect

67

One's feelings of high or low self-worth

Self-esteem

68

A readiness to perceive oneself favorably

Self-serving bias

69

Giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's idenity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications

Individualism

70

Giving priority to the goals of one's group and defining one's identity accordingly

Collectivism