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Flashcards in 14- Social Psychology Deck (71)
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Explaining someone's behavior by crediting either the situation of the person's predisposition

Attribution theory

1

Underestimating the impact of a situation and overestimating the impact of personal disposition

Fundamental attribution error

2

Seeing ourselves in the situation

Self-serving bias

3

Feelings influenced by beliefs that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events

Attitude

4

Attitude change path in which interested people focus on arguments and respond with favorable thoughts

Central route persuasion

5

Attitude change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues

Peripheral route persuasion

6

Tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request

Foot-in-the-door phenomenon

7

A set of expectations about a social position that defines how those in the position ought to behave

Role

8

The theory that we act to reduce discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent

Cognitive dissonance theory

9

Mimicking other people's behavioral acts

Chameleon effect

10

Attitude changes related to the people around you

Mood-linkage

11

Adjusting kne's behavior to coincide with a group standard

Conformity

12

When a participant was asked to say which of the three lines is equal to the standard line given, and two people in the room, actors, said a line that was obviously not equal to it, the participant went along with what the other two people said

Solomon Asch study

13

-one is made to feel impncompetent
-group has at least 3 people
-group is unanimous
-one admires the group's status
-one has no prior commitments to any response
-others in the group observes one's behavior
-one's culture strongly encourages respect for social standards

Conditions that strengthen conformity

14

Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval

Normative social influence

15

Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept other's opinions about reality

Informational social influence

16

The shock level experiment between "teachers" and "students"

Milgram's Studies

17

-the person giving orders was close at hand and was perceived to be a legitimate authority figure
-the authority figure was supported by a prestigious instituation/university
-the victim was depersonalized or at a distance, even in another room
-there were no role models for defiance; no other participants were seen disobeying the experimenter

When obedience was high

18

Stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others

Social facilitation

19

If a task is ______, when people are around watching your skills appear to be worse

Extremely difficult

20

An activity or something someone does _____, they do better when people are watching

Well

21

The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable

Social loafing

22

The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity

Deindividuation

23

The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group

Group polarization

24

The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
-examples: Bay of Pigs, Challenger explosion

Groupthink

25

The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

Culture

26

An understood rule for accepted and expected behavior; prescribe proper behavior

Norm

27

The buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies

Personal space

28

Culture changes happen _______ from generation to generation

Quickly

29

How individuals influence a group; have to stay firm and seem self-confident

Minority influence

30

Usually negative; an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and it's members; generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action

Prejudice

31

A generalized belief about a group of people; sometimes accurate, but often overgeneralized

Stereotype

32

Unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and it's members; the action

Discrimination

33

"Us"; people whom we share a common identity

In group

34

"Them"; those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup

Out group

35

The tendency to favor our own group

Ingroup bias

36

The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame

Scapegoat theory

37

The tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races

Other race effect

38

Overestimating the similarity of those within other groups

Outgroup homogeneity

39

Shade our view of certain groups based on one person's actions

Vivid cases

40

The tendency for people to believe the world is just and people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get

Just-world phenomenon

41

When given an outcome, the belief that it was easily predicted beforehand

Hindsight bias

42

Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy

Aggression

43

Acts of aggression when stimulated

Amygdala

44

There is _____ frontal lobe activity in violent criminals

Reduced

45

______ levels of testosterone are linked to aggression! and _____ levels of serotonin are also linked to aggression

Increased; decreased

46

The principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger, which can generate aggression

Frustration-aggression principle

47

People believe that some women invite or enjoy sexual assault

Rape myth

48

Teach or release violence

Video games

49

The idea that we feel better if we "blow off steam" by venting our emotions

Catharsis hypothesis

50

The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them

Mere-exposure effect

51

Matters to both men and women

Physical attractiveness

52

Continuing the relationship when the rewards are greater than the costs

Reward theory of attraction

53

An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship

Passionate love

54

The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined

Companionate love

55

A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it

Equity

56

Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others

Self-disclosure

57

Unselfish regard for the well being of others

Altruism

58

The more people present, the less responsibility there is

Diffusion of responsibility

59

The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present

Bystander effect

60

The theory that social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs

Social exchange theory

61

An expectation that people will,help, not hurt, those who have helped them

Reciprocity norm

62

An expectation that people will help those dependent upon them

Social-responsibility norm

63

A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas

Conflict

64

A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior

Social trap

65

Mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive

Mirror-image perception

66

A belief that leads to its own fulfillment

Self-fulfilling prophecy

67

Contact, cooperation, communication, and conciliation

To resolve conflict

68

Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation

Superordinate goals

69

Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction; a strategy designed to decrease international tensions

GRIT

70

Kitty Genovese

Kitty Genovese