7A- Cognition: Memory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 7A- Cognition: Memory Deck (70)
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The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information

Memory

1

The processing of information into the memory systems

Encoding

2

The retention of encoded information over time

Storage

3

The process of getting information out of memory storage

Retrieval

4

The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

Sensory memory

5

Activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten

Short-term memory

6

The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system; includes knowledge, skills, and experiences; some information goes directly here

Long-term memory

7

A newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information and of information from long-term memory

Working memory

8

The processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously

Parallel processing

9

Unconscious encoding of incidental information and well-learned information; includes details of timing, space, and frequency

Automatic processing

10

Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

Effortful processing

11

The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage

Rehearsal

12

His curve showed that as rehearsal increases, relearning time decreases

Ebbinghaus

13

The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

Spacing effect

14

Testing more times yields better long-term retention

Testing effect

15

Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list

Serial position effect

16

The last item in a list remembered

Recency effect

17

The first item in a list remembered

Primacy effect

18

The encoding of picture images

Visual encoding

19

The encoding of sound

Acoustic encoding

20

The encoding of meaning; the best way to remember things/terms later

Semantic encoding

21

Attaching things to relevant examples in one's own life, these are remembered better

Self-reference effect

22

Mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding

Imagery

23

After something occurs, we remember it as more pleasant

Rosy retrospection

24

Memory aids such as vivid imagery and organizational devices

Mnemonic

25

Attaching information to a list you already have

Peg-word system

26

Type of chunking; ROY G BIV (colors); HOMES (Great Lakes)

Acronym

27

Dividing things into subsections, sections, and outlines

Hierarchies

28

We hang onto more information than we realize

Sperling's memory experiment

29

A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; photograph or image memory lasting for fewer than a few tenths of a second

Iconic memory

30

Auditory stimuli; sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 to 4 seconds

Echoic memory

31

Magic number

7 plus or minus 2

32

Path to how people learn things

Memory trace

33

An increase in a synapse's firing potential after a brief, rapid stimulation

Long-term potentiation (LTP)

34

Memory boosting drug that switches genes on and off

CREB

35

Memory boosting drug that enhances synaptic communication

Glutamate

36

A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event; stored in long term memory

Flashbulb memory

37

The loss of memory

Amnesia

38

A study involving a man who had a part of his brain, that is involved in laying new conscious memories of facts and experiences, surgically removed; he was able to do tasks he had learned prior to the surgery, but could not convert new experiences to long-term storage

HM Studies

39

Retention independent of conscious recollection

Implicit memory

40

Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"

Explicit memory

41

Processes explicit memories for storage

Hippocampus

42

Forms and stores implicit memories

Cerebellum

43

A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, (fill-in-the-blank)

Recall

44

The person need only to identify items previously learned, (multiple choice)

Recognition

45

Assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time

Relearning

46

Anchor points you can use to access the target information when you retrieve it better; mnemonic devices; priming

Retrieval cues

47

The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

Priming

48

The eerie sense that "I've experienced this before"

Deja vu

49

The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current mood

Mood congruent memory

50

Absentmindedness, transience, and blocking

Sins of forgetting

51

Misattribution, suggestibility, and bias

Sins of distortion

52

Persistence

Sin of intrusion

53

Inattention to details leads to encoding failures

Absent-mindedness

54

Storage decay over time

Transience

55

Inaccessibility of stored information (tip of your tongue)

Blocking

56

Confusing the source of information

Misatteibution

57

The lingering effects of misinformation

Suggestibility

58

Belief-colored recollections

Bias

59

Unwanted memories

Persistence

60

The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

Proactive interference

61

The disruption effect of new learning on the recall of old information

Retroactive interference

62

Remembering something the way we want to

Self-serving personal histories

63

The basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety- arousing thoughts, feelings, or memories

Repression

64

Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; 1-800-HOLIDAY

Chunking

65

When asked the speed of the cars, those who were asked when they smashed into each other reported higher speeds than those who were asked when they hit each other

Loftus memory studies

66

Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event

Misinformation effect

67

Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined; also called source misattribution

Source amnesia

68

Eyewitnesses express roughly similar self-assurance

Eye witness testimony

69

Study repeatedly, sleep more, make the material meaningful, activate retrieval cues, use mnemonic devices, minimize interference, and test your own knowledge

Way to Improve memory