7A- Cognition: Memory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 7A- Cognition: Memory Deck (70)
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The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information

Memory

1

The processing of information into the memory systems

Encoding

2

The retention of encoded information over time

Storage

3

The process of getting information out of memory storage

Retrieval

4

The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

Sensory memory

5

Activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten

Short-term memory

6

The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system; includes knowledge, skills, and experiences; some information goes directly here

Long-term memory

7

A newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information and of information from long-term memory

Working memory

8

The processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously

Parallel processing

9

Unconscious encoding of incidental information and well-learned information; includes details of timing, space, and frequency

Automatic processing

10

Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

Effortful processing

11

The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage

Rehearsal

12

His curve showed that as rehearsal increases, relearning time decreases

Ebbinghaus

13

The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

Spacing effect

14

Testing more times yields better long-term retention

Testing effect

15

Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list

Serial position effect

16

The last item in a list remembered

Recency effect

17

The first item in a list remembered

Primacy effect

18

The encoding of picture images

Visual encoding

19

The encoding of sound

Acoustic encoding

20

The encoding of meaning; the best way to remember things/terms later

Semantic encoding

21

Attaching things to relevant examples in one's own life, these are remembered better

Self-reference effect

22

Mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding

Imagery

23

After something occurs, we remember it as more pleasant

Rosy retrospection

24

Memory aids such as vivid imagery and organizational devices

Mnemonic

25

Attaching information to a list you already have

Peg-word system

26

Type of chunking; ROY G BIV (colors); HOMES (Great Lakes)

Acronym

27

Dividing things into subsections, sections, and outlines

Hierarchies

28

We hang onto more information than we realize

Sperling's memory experiment

29

A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; photograph or image memory lasting for fewer than a few tenths of a second

Iconic memory