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Flashcards in 9- Developmental Psychology Deck (104)
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A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

Developmental psychology

1

Fertilized egg; enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

Zygote

2

The developing human organism from about 2 weeks to the 2nd month

Embryo

3

The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

Fetus

4

Formed by the outer cells of the zygote; attaches to the uterine wall, and transfers nutrients and oxygen from mother to fetus

Placenta

5

Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

Teratogen

6

Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant women's heavy drinking; in severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial mis proportions.

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

7

Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation; getting used to something

Habituation

8

Prefer sights and sounds that facilitate social responsiveness

Child's preferences/novelties

9

At birth, we have most of the brain cells we will have

Brain development in infancy

10

Shuts down excess connections and strengthens others

Pruning process

11

Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience

Maturation

12

Learning to walk is a part of ...

Motor development in infancy

13

No clear memories prior to age three; immature hippocampus and frontal lobes

Infantile amnesia

14

All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

Cognition

15

Interested in children's cognitive abilities in the 1920s

Piaget

16

A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

Schema

17

Interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas

Assimilation

18

Adapting our current understandings to incorporate new information

Accommodation

19

Sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete operational stage, formal operational stage

Piaget's theory and current thinking

20

The stage (from birth to 2 years) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities; involves object permanence and stranger anxiety

Sensorimotor stage

21

The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

Object permanence

22

The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning about 8 months

Stranger anxiety

23

Stage (from 2 years to about 6 or 7 years) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic; involves pretend play, egocentrism, and the inability to comprehend conservation

Preoperational stage

24

The principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

Conservation

25

The preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view

Egocentrism

26

The stage (from 6 or 7 years to 11 years) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events; involves conservation and mathematical transformations

Concrete operational stage

27

Stage (normally begins around 12 years) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts; involves abstract logic and potential for mature moral reasoning

Formal operational stage

28

People's ideas about their own and other's mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts- and behaviors these might predict

Theory of mind

29

Studied how a child's mind feeds on the language of social interaction

Lev Vygotsky

30

-Development is more continuous
-influential theory
-larger emphasis on social factors

Piaget's theory

31

The zone between what they could learn with and without help

Zone of proximal development

32

A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of other's states of mind

Autism

33

An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress upon separation

Attachment

34

Body contact

Harlow's studies

35

An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development

Critical period

36

The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life; studied by Konrad Lorenz with birds

Imprinting

37

A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

Temperament

38

A

Secure attachment

39

A

Insecure attachment

40

A sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers

Basic trust

41

Our understanding and evaluation of who we are

Self-concept

42

How we feel about who we are

Self-esteem

43

Begins when we recognize ourselves in a mirror; how our behavior affects others

Self-awareness

44

Parents who impose rules and expect obedience; children have less social skills and low self-esteem

Authoritarian parents

45

Parents who submit to their child's desires; children are more aggressive and immature

Permissive parents

46

Parents who are both demanding and responsive; children have high self-esteem, social competence, and self-reliance

Authoritative parents

47

Studied parenting styles and their child's behavior

Baumrind

48

The biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female

Gender

49

-More socially dominant
-more directive
-over represented in government
-professions pay more
-play in large groups and competitively

Male social development

50

-more democratic
-professions pay less
-not as much represented in government
-bond the family together
-turn for help in times of stress

Female social development

51

Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone

Aggression

52

-Physical aggression
-relational aggression- intentionally excluding someone
-verbal aggression

Types of aggression

53

X and Y chromosomes

Sex chromosomes

54

Found in both men and women; females- 2; males- 1

X-chromosome

55

Found only in males; produces a male child when paired with an X from the mother

Y-Chromosome

56

Most important of the male sex hormones; additional levels of this hormone in males stimulates the growth of male sex organs

Testosterone

57

A set of expected behaviors for males or for females

Gender role

58

A set of expectations about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave

Role

59

Our sense of being male or female

Gender identity

60

The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

Gender typing

61

Theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded

Social learning theory

62

Developed set of rules for being male or female and putting people into groups based on your rules

Gender schema

63

Impoverished environment-->impoverished brain cells
Enriched environment-->enriched brain cell

Experience and brain development

64

Influence our peer group, religious faith, college and career choices, and political views

Parental influences

65

Influence the way we talk, act, and dress

Peer influences

66

The transition period childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence; longer today than before; now 12-25

Adolescence

67

The period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

Puberty

68

Required for reproduction; ovaries, testes, and external genitalia

Primary sex characteristics

69

Nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair

Secondary sex characteristics

70

The first menstral period

Menarche

71

Studied Morality in humans

Kohlberg

72

Before age 9, morality focuses on self-interest (avoiding punishment and gaining rewards)

Pre-conventional morality

73

By early adolescence, morality focuses on caring for others and on upholding laws and social rules

Conventional morality

74

Reach upon the gaining the abstract reasoning of formal operational thoughts; not everyone reaches this level; actions are judged "right" because they flow from people's agreed upon rights; example: civil disobedience; seen more in western cultures

Post conventional morality

75

Moral feeling precedes moral reasoning

Social intuitionism account of morality

76

Studied psychosocial development

Erikson

77

Trust vs mistrust

Infancy

78

Autonomy vs shame and doubt

Toddlerhood

79

Initiative vs guilt

Preschool

80

Industry vs inferiority

Elementary school

81

Identity vs role confusion

Adolescene

82

Intimacy vs isolation

Young adulthood

83

Generatively/work vs stagnation

Middle adulthood

84

Integrity vs despair

Late adulthood

85

Our sense of self

Identity

86

The "we" aspect of our self-concept

Social identity

87

The ability to form close, loving relationships

Intimacy

88

In modern culture, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood

Emerging adulthood

89

Crest during the mid-twenties

Physical abilities

90

The time of natural cessation of menstraution; biological changes a women experiences as her ability to reproduce declines

Menstraution

91

-males more prone to dying
-women outlive men by 4-5 years
-anger and depression increase the risk of ill health and premature death

Life expectancy

92

-visual sharpness decreases
-distance perception and adaptation to changes in light level are less acute
-muscles strength, reaction time, and stamina diminish as well as vision, smell, and hearing

Sensory abilities

93

-disease fighting immune system weakens
-often suffer fewer short-term ailments
-brain functions important to memory begin to diminish during aging
-exercise promotes neurogenesis

Health changes later in life

94

Mental erosion

Dementia

95

Strikes 3% of the world's population by age 75; first memory deteriorates then reasoning; deterioration of neurons that produce acetylcholine

Alzheimer's

96

-Remember more important events from teens and early twenties than events later in life
-recall more names when introduced at least 3 times
-prospective emory remains strong when events trigger memory
-more likely to remember meaningful information
-learning and verbal skills decline less than verbal skills

Aging and memory

97

A study in which people of different ages are compared with one another

Cross-sectional study

98

Research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period

Longitudinal study

99

Our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age

Crystallized intelligence

100

Our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood

Fluid intelligence

101

Cognitive decline typically accelerates the last 3-4 years of life

Terminal decline

102

Around forty, when we realize our life is mostly behind us instead of in front of us

Midlife crisis/transition

103

The culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement

Social clock