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Flashcards in 115 Unit 7 Deck (76)
1

____ is a basic component of health and is essential for normal growth and development, tissue maintenance and repair, cellular metabolism, and organ function.

Nutrition

2

____ is a chemical substance that provides nourishment and affects metabolic and nutritive processes.

Nutrients

3

____ are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Ar starches and sugars that are obtained mainly from plant foods, with the exception of lactose.

Carbohydrates

4

____ are the building blocks of proteins and are made of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogens.

Amino Acids

5

____ are the most important components of proteins in the human body and are essential for synthesis of body tissue in growth, maintenance, and repair.

Amino Acids

6

____ are compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol and acetone.

Lipids (fats)

7

____ are made up of triglycerides and fatty acids and are a source of energy, providing 9kcal/g.

Lipids

8

____ are organic substances resent in small amounts in foods and are essential for normal metabolism.

Vitamins

9

____ are inorganic elements that catalyze biochemical reactions.

Minerals

10

____ refers to all of the bodily biochemical and physiological processes.

Metabolism

11

Nutrients are converted into necessary substances for cell function through what?

Metabolism

12

2 basic types of metabolism.

Catabolism & Metabolism

13

____ is the production of more complex chemical substances by synthesis of nutrients needed to build or repair body tissue.

Anabolism

14

____ is the breakdown of body tissues into simpler substances.

Catabolism

15

The liver and muscles store glucose in the form of glycogen through what process?

Glycogenesis

16

____ is a process that converts glucose to fat for storage?

Lipogenesis

17

What is the process that breaks down fat and amino acids for conversion to glucose when energy needs exceed glycogen storage.

Gluconeogenesis

18

____ represents the energy needs of a person at rest after awakening.

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

19

____ is a calculation based on height and weight in children and adults that is a reliable indicator of body fat.

Body Mass Index (BMI)

20

____ is a systematic measurement of the size and makeup of the body using height and weight as the principal measures.

Anthropometry

21

____ refers to difficulty with swallowing.

Dysphagia

22

____ refers to difficulty with swallowing.

Dysphagia

23

____ refers to administration of nutrients and fluid into the stomach or intestinal tract via a feeding tube.

Enteral Nutrition

24

____ is the administration of a solution consisting of glucose, amino acids, minerals, electrolytes, trace elements, and vitamins through a peripheral or central venous catheter.

Parenteral Nutrition

25

____ is the use of specific nutritional therapies to treat an illness, injury, or condition.

Medical nutrition therapy

26

____ is information on each vitamin or mineral to reflect a range of minimum maximum amounts that avert deficiency or toxicity.

Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)

27

____ is a hollow tube inserted into the jejunum through the abdominal wall for administration of liquefied foods to patients who have a high risk of aspiration.

Jejunostomy tube

28

____ is a fatty acid in which some of he carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain are joined by double or triple bonds. Has only one or trible bond per molecule and are found as components of fats in such foods as fowls, almonds, pecans, cashews, peanuts and olive oil.

Monounsaturated Fatty Acid

29

____ is a fatty acid in which some of he carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain are joined by double or triple bonds. Has only one or trible bond per molecule and are found as components of fats in such foods as fowls, almonds, pecans, cashews, peanuts and olive oil.

Monounsaturated Fatty Acid

30

____ is a fatty acid that has two or more carbon double bonds.

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

31

____ is a fatty acid in which each carbon in the chain has an attached hydrogen atom.

Saturated fatty acid

32

____ is a fatty acid in which an unequal number of hydrogen atoms are attached and the carbon atoms at ache to each other with a double bond.

Unsaturated Fatty Acid

33

____ is the achievement of equal nitrogen input and output.

Nitrogen Balance

34

____ is the achievement of equal nitrogen input and output.

Nitrogen Balance

35

____ is the presence of bacteria in the urine.

Bacteriuria

36

____ is the introduction of a catheter into a body cavity or organ to inject or remove fluid.

Catheterization

37

____ painful urination resulting from bacterial infection of the bladder and obstructive conditions of the urethra.

Dysuria

38

____ is a receptacle for volume measurement.

Graduated Measuring Container

39

____ is an abnormal presence of blood in the urine.

Hematuria

40

____ is urination. the act of passing or expelling urine voluntarily through the urethra.

Micturition

41

____ is the presence in the urine of abnormally large quantities of protein, usually albumin.

Proteinuria

42

____ is the volume of fine remaining in the bladder after a normal voiding.

Residual Urine

43

____ is an artificially created opening between a body cavity and the body's surface; for example a, colostomy, formed from apportion of the colon pulled through the abdominal wall.

Stoma

44

____ is a catheter surgically inserted through abdomen into bladder.

Suprapubic Catheter

45

____ is the diversion of urine away from a diseased or defective bladder through an artificial opening in the skin.

Ureterostomy

46

_____ is the receptacle for collecting urine.

Urinal

47

____ is the surgical diversion of the drainage of urine, such as a ureterostomy.

Urinary diversion

48

____ is the inability to control urination.

Urinary Incontinence

49

____ is the abnormal backward flow of urine.

Urinary Reflux

50

____ is the retention of urine in the bladder; condition frequently caused by a temporary loss of muscle function.

Urinary retention

51

____ is a receptacle for collecting urine that fits toilet.

Urinary Hat

52

____ is a device for measuring frequent and small amounts of urine from an indwelling urinary catheter system.

Urometer

53

____ is the presence of organisms in the bloodstream.

Urosepsis

54

____ is the process of urinating.

Voiding

55

____ can be a serious UTI caused by bacteria in the urine.

Bacteremia

56

____ is the irritation of the bladder characterized by urgency, frequency, incontinence, suprapubic tenderness, and foul-smelling, cloudy urine.

Cystitis

57

____ is an upper urinary tract infection.

Pyelonephritis

58

____ is a complete inability of the bladder to empty.

Postvoid residuals

59

____ are drugs that act to promote bowel evacuation.

Cathartics

60

____ is a portion of the large intestine from the cecum to the rectum

Colon

61

____ is a condition characterized by difficulty in passing stool or an infrequent passage of hard stool.

Constipation

62

____ is the passage of feces from the digestive tract through the rectum.

Defecation

63

____ is the increase in the number of stools and the passage of liquid, unformed feces.

Diarrhea

64

____ is a procedure involving introduction of a solution into the rectum for cleansing or therapeutic purposes.

Enema

65

____ is the accumulation of hardened fecal material in the rectum or sigmoid colon.

Fecal impaction

66

____ is the inability to control passage of feces and gas from the anus

Fecal Incontinence

67

____ measures microscopic amounts of blood in the feces.

Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT)

68

____ is waste or excrement from the gastrointestinal tract.

Feces

69

____ is intestinal gas.

Flatus

70

____ is the permanent dilation and engorgement of veins within the lining of the rectum.

Hemorrhoids

71

____ are drugs that act to promote bowel evacuation.

Laxatives

72

____ is an abnormal black, sticky stool containing digested blood, indicative of gastrointestinal bleeding.

Melena

73

____ is a surgical procedure in which an opening is made into the abdominal wall to allow the passage of intestinal contents from the bowel (colostomy) or urine from the bladder (urostomy).

Ostomy

74

____ is the rhythmical contractions of the intestine that propel gastric contents through the length of the gastrointestinal tract.

Peristalsis

75

____ is a temporary cessation of peristalsis occurs.

Ileus

76

____ is defined as having fewer than 3 bowel movements per week.

Constipation