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Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (43)
1

____ is an elevation of serum lipid levels in the blood.

Hyperlipidemia

2

____ is a term referring to blood glucose.

Glycemic

3

____ is abnormally high levels of blood glucose.

Hyperglycemia

4

____ is a hormone secreted by the pancreas that increases blood glucose levels. Acts opposite of insulin. It causes the release of glucose from cell storage sites when levels are low.

Glucagon

5

____ is a term used to describe the early burst of insulin secretion that occurs within 10 minutes of eating and is followed by increasing insulin release as long as hyperglycemia is present.

Prandial (insulin secretion)

6

____ is the production of glycogen in the body.

Glycogenesis

7

____ is the breakdown of glycogen into glucose.

Glycogenolysis

8

____ is the conversion of fats to acids in the body.

Ketogenesis

9

____ is the conversion of proteins and amino acids to glucose in the body.

Gluconeogenesis

10

____ is the decomposition or splitting up of fat to provide fuel for energy when liver glucose is unavailable.

Lipolysis

11

____ is the breakdown of proteins to provide fuel for energy when liver glucose is unavailable.

Proteolysis

12

____ is frequent and excessive urination.

Polyuria

13

____ is excessive intake of water.

Polydipsia

14

____ is excessive eating.

Polyphagia

15

____ are substances, including acetone, that are produced as by-products of the incomplete metabolism of fatty acids. When insulin is not available, they accumulate in the blood and cause metabolic acidosis.

Ketones

16

____ is type of breathing that occurs when excess acids caused by the absence of insulin increase hydrogen ion and carbon dioxide levels in the blood. this state triggers an increase in the rate and depth of respiration in an attempt to excrete more carbon dioxide and acid.

Kussmal respiration

17

____ is a decreased serum potassium level; a common electrolyte imbalance.

Hypokalemia

18

____ is an elevated level of potassium in the blood.

Hyperkalemia

19

____ is a term that refers to large blood vessels.

Macrovascular

20

____ is a term referring to small blood vessels.

Microvascular

21

____ is a pathologic change in the kidney that reduces kidney function and leads to renal failure.

Nephropathy

22

____ is a type of chronic non-cancer pain that results from a nerve injury. (Burning, shooting, stabbing pain along with pins and needles.)

Neuropathic Pain

23

____ is the inflammation of the retina.

Retinopathy

24

____ is the presence of albumin in the urine.

Albuminuria

25

____ is a complication of diabetes. The abnormal appearance of retinal veins in which areas of swelling and constriction along a segment of vein resemble links of sausage. A predictor of proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

Venous Beading

26

____ is a form of retinopathy associated with diabetes mellitus in which a network of fragile new blood vessels develops, leaking blood and protein into surrounding tissue.

Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

27

____ is a progressive deterioration of nerves that results in loss of nerve function (sensory perception). A common complication of diabetes.

Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

28

____ is a decrease in blood pressure (20 mmHg sys and/or 20 mmHg dias) that occurs during the first few seconds to minutes after changing from a sitting or lying position to a standing position.

Orthostatic Hypotension

29

____ is the transient loss of consciousness, most commonly caused by decreased perfusion to the brain.

Syncope

30

____ is the delay in gastric emptying.

Gastroparesis

31

____ is the presence of very small amounts of albumin in the urine that are not measurable by a urine dipstick or usual urinalysis procedures.

Microalbuminuria

32

____ is an impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance.

Prediabetes

33

____ is a standardized test that measures how much glucose permanently attaches to the hemoglobin molecule. Reflects the average over a period of 2-3 months. "A1C" elves greater that 6.5% are diagnostic of diabetes mellitus.

Glycosylated Hemoglobin (A1C)

34

____ is a drug that has an increase risk for causing patient harm if given in error.

High-Alert Drugs

35

____ is chronic high blood insulin levels.

Hyperinsulinemia

36

____ is a chronic metabolic disease that affects glucose regulation.

Diabetes

37

____ transports and metabolizes glucose for energy, stimulates storage of glucose in the liver and muscle as glycogen, signals the liver to stop the release of glucose and enhances the storage of dietary fat in adipose tissue.

Insulin

38

Which type of diabetes does not produce insulin?

Type 1

39

Which type of diabetes doesn't use insulin like it is suppose to?

Type 2

40

____ is the loss of fatty tissues.

Lipoatrophy

41

____ is abnormally low blood glucose.

Hypoglycemia

42

____ is caused by an absence of or inadequate amount of insulin resulting in abnormal metabolism of carbohydrate, protein, and fat.

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)

43

____ is an increased blood osmolarity caused by Hyperglycemia and dehydration.

Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State