Flashcards in GI part 1 Deck (112)
____ is the inner wall of the GI tract that consists of four layers.
What are the 4 layers of the lumen?
Before food can be absorbed, it must be broken down in to a liquid known as ____.
____ is the mechanical and chemical process in which complex foodstuffs are broken down into simpler forms that can be used by the body.
____ is carried out as the nutrients produced by digestion move from the lumen of the GI tract not the body's circulatory system for uptake by individual cells.
____ is the act of chewing.
____ is the sphincter at the upper end of the esophagus that prevents air from entering the esophagus during respiration when at rest.
Upper Esophageal Sphincter (UES)
____ is the portion of the esophagus just above the gastroesophageal junction the is normally closed to prevent reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus, when at rest.
Lower Esophageal Sphicter (LES)
What type of cells line the wall of the stomach and secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor?
____ is a substance that iAds in the absorption of vitamin B12. Without this, pernicious anemia is caused.
____ are part of the body's reticuloendothelial system; they engulf harmful bacteria and anemic red blood cells. (Protective function of liver.)
____ is the larges organ in the body (other than the skin).
3 major categories of liver function.
Location of the liver.
RUQ of abdomen
____ is a pear shaped bulbous sac that is located under the liver.
____ is the longest and most convoluted portion of the digestive system measuring 16 to 19 feet.
Three different regions of the Small Intestine?
____ extends about five to six feet in length from the ileocecal valve to the anus and is lined with columnar epithelium that has absorptive mucous cells.
____ is a loss of appetite for food?
____ is a term for indigestion or heartburn.
Mnemonic that is helpful for assessing pain in pt's with GI disorders.
Precipitating or Palliative- what causes/relieves. Noticed when?
Quality or quantity- How look, feel, sound, intense/severe?
Region or radiation- where? has/does it spread
Severity scale- 0-10, better, worse, or same?
Timing- onset: when. Duration: how long. Frequency: how often?
____ is the Yellowing of the skin caused by bilirubin pigments?
____ is the term for an enlarged liver?
____ is the term for an enlarged spleen?
____ is a term for fatty stools?
____ is a x-ray visualization from the mouth to the duodenojejunal junction. Used to detect disorders of structor or function of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum.
Upper GI radiographic series
____ is an x-ray of the biliary duct system using ann iodinated dye instilled via a percutaneous needle inserted through the liver into the intrahepatic ducts.
Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC)
____ is a direct visualization of the GI tract using a flexible fiberoptic endoscope.
____ is a visual examination of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
____ includes visual and radiographic examination of the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, and pancreas to id the came and location of obstruction.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
____ is a small incision in the sphincter around the ampulla of hater. Performed to remove gallstones.
____ is a small bowel endoscopy
____ is an endoscopic examination of the entire large bowel.
____ is a non invasive imaging procedure to obtain multidimensional views of the entire colon.
CT colonography aka
____ presents as slowly developing changes in the oral mucous membranes causing thickened, white, firmly attached patches than cannot be easily scraped off.
____ appear as red, velvety mucosal lesions on the surface of the oral mucosa.
____ is a noninvasive surgical intervention that involves extreme cold application to remove lesions of the oral cavity.
____ is the removal of the tongue.
____ is the removal of the jaw.
____ is a COMbined neck dissection, MANDibulectoomy, and Oropharyngeal resection.
____ is the inflammation of a salivary gland.
____ is the most common upper GI disorder in the US.
GERD (Gastroesophageal reflux disease)
____ occurs as a result of backward flow of stomach contents into the esophagus.
GER Gastroesophageal reflux
____ is a term to describe a person with acute symptoms of inflammation of the esophageal mucosa.
____ increase the risk for development of GERD due to the creation of increased intra-abdominal pressure.
____ is a narrowing of the esophageal opening than can be caused by the fibrosis and scarring from the healing of tissues affected by GERD.
____ is a term to describe indigestion.
____ is the backward flow of food particles or fluids into the throat.
____ is a hypersecretion salivary reflex. Pt's report a sensation of fluid in the throat.
____ is a term for belching.
____ is a term for painful swallowing.
____ is an "upper endoscopy" that involves the insertion of an endoscope down the throat, which allows the hcp to see the esophagus and look for abnormalities.
____ is the most accurate method of diagnosing GERD.
pH monitoring exam
____ are also called diaphragmatic hernias, that involve the protrusion of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm into the chest.
____ is a term for air swallowing.
____ is the spreading of cancers throughout the body.
____ results from the exposure to acid and pepsin, which leads to the replacement of normal distal squamous mucosa with columnar epithelium as a response to tissue injury.
____ is the most common symptom of esophageal cancer, but it may not be present until the esophageal opening has gotten much smaller.
____ is the term for foul breath.
____ is the removal of all or part of the esophagus.
____ involves the removal of part of the esophagus and proximal stomach.
____ are sacs resulting from the herniation of esophageal mucosa and submucosa into surrounding tissue.
____ is the inflammation of gastric mucosa.
____ is the self digestion of the stomach.
____ appears as a patchy, diffuse inflammation of the mucosal lining of the stomach.
____ is the result of depleted vitamin B12 storage.
____ has been associated with the presence of antibodies to parietal cells and intrinsic factor.
Type A Chronic Gastritis
____ is the most common form of chronic gastritis that is caused by H. pylori.
Type B Gastritis
____ is a type of chronic gastritis that is seen most often in older adults.
___ is the vomiting of blood.
____ is the term for dark, sticky feces, as evidence of blood in the stool.
____ is a term for heartburn/indigestion.
____ is a mucosal lesion of the stomach or duodenum.
____ results when mucosal defenses become impaired and no longer protect the epithelium from the effects of acid and pepsin.
Peptic Ulcer Disease
____ are multiple shallow erosions of the stomach and occasionally the proximal duodenum.
____ is the term for pain when the pt's abdomen is tender, rigid, and board like. Assuming a fetal position helps decrease the tension.
____ is the insertion of a large bore NGT with instillation of a room-temp solution in volumes of 200 to 300 mL.
____ is the absence of the secretion of hydrochloric acid.
____ is a term that refers to a group of vasomotor symptoms that occur after eating.
____ is also known as bile reflux gastropathy, and is a complication of gastric surgery in which the pylorus is bypassed or removed.
Alkaline Reflux Gastropathy
____ is a functional GI disorder that causes chronic or recurrent diarrhea, constipation, and/or abdominal pain and bloating.
____ is the most common digestive disorder seen in clinical practice and may affect as many as one in five people in the US.
____ is a weakness in the abdominal muscle wall through which a segment of the bowel or other abdominal structure protrudes.
____ is a sac formed from the peritoneum that contains a portion of the intestine or momentum.
Indirect Inguinal Hernia
____ pass through a weak point in the abdominal wall.
Direct Inguinal Hernias
____ protrude through the femoral ring. A plug of fat in the femoral canal enlarges and eventually pulls the peritoneum and often the urinary bladder into the sac.
____ are congenital or acquired hernias and appear in infancy. Some are a direct result from increased intra-abdominal pressure. and can be seen in the obese.
____ are hernias that occur at the site of a previous surgical incision. Caused by inadequate healing.
Incisional or Ventral Hernias
____ is a term to describe when the blood supply to the hernia and segment of the bowel is cut off by pressure from the her nail ring.
____ are tumors that arise from the glandular epithelial tissue of the colon.
____ is the passage of red blood via the rectum.
____ is an oncofetal antigen and is elevated in may people with CRC.
____ is the removal f the tumor and regional lymph nodes in CRC.
____ is the removal of the colon.
____ is the surgical creation of an opening of the colon onto the surface of the abdomen.
____ is the surgical reattachment
____ is created by dividing the bowel and bringing both the proximal and sitar portions to the abdominal surface to create two stomas.
____ is the term for when the bowel is physically blocked by problems outside the intestine, in the bowel wall,or in the intestinal lumen.
____ does not involve a physical obstruction in or outside the intestine.
____ is a blockage in two different areas.
____ is an obstruction with compromised blood flow.
____ is the telescoping of a segment of the intestine within itself. (Can cause Mechanical Obstruction)
____ is the twisting of the intestine. (Can cause Mechanical Obstruction)
____ is the inability to pass stool; intractable constipation.
____ are high pitched bowel sounds.
____ is a surgical opening of the abdominal cavity to investigate the cause of the obstruction.
____ are small growths in the intestinal tract that are covered with mucosa and attached to the surface of the intestine.
____ are unnaturally swollen or distended veins in the anorectal region.
____ are hemorrhoids that cannot be seen on inspection of the perineal area, and lie above the anal sphincter.
____ are hemorrhoids that lie below the anal sphincter and can be seen on inspection of the anal region.
____ is a syndrome associated with a variety of disorders and intestinal surgical procedures.