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Flashcards in GI part 1 Deck (112)
1

____ is the inner wall of the GI tract that consists of four layers.

Lumen

2

What are the 4 layers of the lumen?

Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis
Serosa

3

Before food can be absorbed, it must be broken down in to a liquid known as ____.

Chyme

4

____ is the mechanical and chemical process in which complex foodstuffs are broken down into simpler forms that can be used by the body.

Digestion

5

____ is carried out as the nutrients produced by digestion move from the lumen of the GI tract not the body's circulatory system for uptake by individual cells.

Absorption

6

____ is the act of chewing.

Mastication

7

____ is the sphincter at the upper end of the esophagus that prevents air from entering the esophagus during respiration when at rest.

Upper Esophageal Sphincter (UES)

8

____ is the portion of the esophagus just above the gastroesophageal junction the is normally closed to prevent reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus, when at rest.

Lower Esophageal Sphicter (LES)

9

What type of cells line the wall of the stomach and secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor?

Parietal cells

10

____ is a substance that iAds in the absorption of vitamin B12. Without this, pernicious anemia is caused.

Intrinsic Factor

11

____ are part of the body's reticuloendothelial system; they engulf harmful bacteria and anemic red blood cells. (Protective function of liver.)

Kupffer cells.

12

____ is the larges organ in the body (other than the skin).

Liver

13

3 major categories of liver function.

Storage
Protection
Metabolism

14

Location of the liver.

RUQ of abdomen

15

____ is a pear shaped bulbous sac that is located under the liver.

Gallbladder

16

____ is the longest and most convoluted portion of the digestive system measuring 16 to 19 feet.

Small Intestine

17

Three different regions of the Small Intestine?

Duodenum
Jejunum
Ilieum

18

____ extends about five to six feet in length from the ileocecal valve to the anus and is lined with columnar epithelium that has absorptive mucous cells.

Large Intestine

19

____ is a loss of appetite for food?

Anorexia

20

____ is a term for indigestion or heartburn.

Dyspepsia

21

Mnemonic that is helpful for assessing pain in pt's with GI disorders.

PQRST
Precipitating or Palliative- what causes/relieves. Noticed when?
Quality or quantity- How look, feel, sound, intense/severe?
Region or radiation- where? has/does it spread
Severity scale- 0-10, better, worse, or same?
Timing- onset: when. Duration: how long. Frequency: how often?

22

____ is the Yellowing of the skin caused by bilirubin pigments?

Jaundice

23

____ is the term for an enlarged liver?

Hepatomegaly

24

____ is the term for an enlarged spleen?

Splenomegaly

25

____ is a term for fatty stools?

Steatorrhea

26

____ is a x-ray visualization from the mouth to the duodenojejunal junction. Used to detect disorders of structor or function of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum.

Upper GI radiographic series

27

____ is an x-ray of the biliary duct system using ann iodinated dye instilled via a percutaneous needle inserted through the liver into the intrahepatic ducts.

Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC)

28

____ is a direct visualization of the GI tract using a flexible fiberoptic endoscope.

Endoscopy

29

____ is a visual examination of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.

Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)

30

____ includes visual and radiographic examination of the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, and pancreas to id the came and location of obstruction.

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

31

____ is a small incision in the sphincter around the ampulla of hater. Performed to remove gallstones.

Papillotomy

32

____ is a small bowel endoscopy

Enteroscopy

33

____ is an endoscopic examination of the entire large bowel.

Colonoscopy

34

____ is a non invasive imaging procedure to obtain multidimensional views of the entire colon.

CT colonography aka
Virtual Colonoscopy

35

____ presents as slowly developing changes in the oral mucous membranes causing thickened, white, firmly attached patches than cannot be easily scraped off.

Leukoplakia

36

____ appear as red, velvety mucosal lesions on the surface of the oral mucosa.

Erythroplakia

37

____ is a noninvasive surgical intervention that involves extreme cold application to remove lesions of the oral cavity.

Cryotherapy

38

____ is the removal of the tongue.

Glossectomy

39

____ is the removal of the jaw.

Mandibulectomy

40

____ is a COMbined neck dissection, MANDibulectoomy, and Oropharyngeal resection.

Comando procedure

41

____ is the inflammation of a salivary gland.

Acute sialadenitis

42

____ is the most common upper GI disorder in the US.

GERD (Gastroesophageal reflux disease)

43

____ occurs as a result of backward flow of stomach contents into the esophagus.

GER Gastroesophageal reflux

44

____ is a term to describe a person with acute symptoms of inflammation of the esophageal mucosa.

Reflux esophagitits

45

____ increase the risk for development of GERD due to the creation of increased intra-abdominal pressure.

Hiatal Hernias

46

____ is a narrowing of the esophageal opening than can be caused by the fibrosis and scarring from the healing of tissues affected by GERD.

Esophageal Stricture

47

____ is a term to describe indigestion.

Dyspepsia

48

____ is the backward flow of food particles or fluids into the throat.

Regurgitation

49

____ is a hypersecretion salivary reflex. Pt's report a sensation of fluid in the throat.

Water Brash

50

____ is a term for belching.

Eructation

51

____ is a term for painful swallowing.

Odynophagia

52

____ is an "upper endoscopy" that involves the insertion of an endoscope down the throat, which allows the hcp to see the esophagus and look for abnormalities.

Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)

53

____ is the most accurate method of diagnosing GERD.

pH monitoring exam

54

____ are also called diaphragmatic hernias, that involve the protrusion of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm into the chest.

Hiatal hernia

55

____ is a term for air swallowing.

Aerophagia

56

____ is the spreading of cancers throughout the body.

Metastasize

57

____ results from the exposure to acid and pepsin, which leads to the replacement of normal distal squamous mucosa with columnar epithelium as a response to tissue injury.

Barrett's Esophagus

58

____ is the most common symptom of esophageal cancer, but it may not be present until the esophageal opening has gotten much smaller.

Dysphagia

59

____ is the term for foul breath.

Halitosis

60

____ is the removal of all or part of the esophagus.

Esophagectomy

61

____ involves the removal of part of the esophagus and proximal stomach.

Esophagogastrostomy

62

____ are sacs resulting from the herniation of esophageal mucosa and submucosa into surrounding tissue.

Diverticula

63

____ is the inflammation of gastric mucosa.

Gastritis

64

____ is the self digestion of the stomach.

Autodigestion

65

____ appears as a patchy, diffuse inflammation of the mucosal lining of the stomach.

Chronic Gastritis

66

____ is the result of depleted vitamin B12 storage.

Pernicious Anemia

67

____ has been associated with the presence of antibodies to parietal cells and intrinsic factor.

Type A Chronic Gastritis

68

____ is the most common form of chronic gastritis that is caused by H. pylori.

Type B Gastritis

69

____ is a type of chronic gastritis that is seen most often in older adults.

Atrophic Gastritis

70

___ is the vomiting of blood.

Hematemsis

71

____ is the term for dark, sticky feces, as evidence of blood in the stool.

Melena

72

____ is a term for heartburn/indigestion.

Dyspepsia

73

____ is a mucosal lesion of the stomach or duodenum.

Peptic Ulcer

74

____ results when mucosal defenses become impaired and no longer protect the epithelium from the effects of acid and pepsin.

Peptic Ulcer Disease

75

____ are multiple shallow erosions of the stomach and occasionally the proximal duodenum.

Stress Ulcers

76

____ is the term for pain when the pt's abdomen is tender, rigid, and board like. Assuming a fetal position helps decrease the tension.

Periontitis

77

____ is the insertion of a large bore NGT with instillation of a room-temp solution in volumes of 200 to 300 mL.

Gastric Lavage

78

____ is the absence of the secretion of hydrochloric acid.

Achlorhydria

79

____ is a term that refers to a group of vasomotor symptoms that occur after eating.

Dumping Syndrome

80

____ is also known as bile reflux gastropathy, and is a complication of gastric surgery in which the pylorus is bypassed or removed.

Alkaline Reflux Gastropathy

81

____ is a functional GI disorder that causes chronic or recurrent diarrhea, constipation, and/or abdominal pain and bloating.

IBS

82

____ is the most common digestive disorder seen in clinical practice and may affect as many as one in five people in the US.

IBS

83

____ is a weakness in the abdominal muscle wall through which a segment of the bowel or other abdominal structure protrudes.

Hernia

84

____ is a sac formed from the peritoneum that contains a portion of the intestine or momentum.

Indirect Inguinal Hernia

85

____ pass through a weak point in the abdominal wall.

Direct Inguinal Hernias

86

____ protrude through the femoral ring. A plug of fat in the femoral canal enlarges and eventually pulls the peritoneum and often the urinary bladder into the sac.

Femoral Hernias

87

____ are congenital or acquired hernias and appear in infancy. Some are a direct result from increased intra-abdominal pressure. and can be seen in the obese.

Umbilical Hernias

88

____ are hernias that occur at the site of a previous surgical incision. Caused by inadequate healing.

Incisional or Ventral Hernias

89

____ is a term to describe when the blood supply to the hernia and segment of the bowel is cut off by pressure from the her nail ring.

Strangulated

90

____ are tumors that arise from the glandular epithelial tissue of the colon.

Adenocarcinomas

91

____ is the passage of red blood via the rectum.

Hematochezia

92

____ is an oncofetal antigen and is elevated in may people with CRC.

Carcinoembryonic Antigen

93

____ is the removal f the tumor and regional lymph nodes in CRC.

Colon Resection.

94

____ is the removal of the colon.

Colectomy

95

____ is the surgical creation of an opening of the colon onto the surface of the abdomen.

Colostomy

96

____ is the surgical reattachment

Anastomosis

97

____ is created by dividing the bowel and bringing both the proximal and sitar portions to the abdominal surface to create two stomas.

Double-Barrel Stoma

98

____ is the term for when the bowel is physically blocked by problems outside the intestine, in the bowel wall,or in the intestinal lumen.

Mechanical Obstruction.

99

____ does not involve a physical obstruction in or outside the intestine.

Nonmechanical obstuction
aka
Paralytic Ileus

100

____ is a blockage in two different areas.

Closed-Loop Obstruction

101

____ is an obstruction with compromised blood flow.

Strangulated Obstruction

102

____ is the telescoping of a segment of the intestine within itself. (Can cause Mechanical Obstruction)

Intussusception

103

____ is the twisting of the intestine. (Can cause Mechanical Obstruction)

Volvulus

104

____ is the inability to pass stool; intractable constipation.

Obstipation

105

____ are high pitched bowel sounds.

Borborygmi

106

____ is a surgical opening of the abdominal cavity to investigate the cause of the obstruction.

Exploratory Laparotomy

107

____ are small growths in the intestinal tract that are covered with mucosa and attached to the surface of the intestine.

Polyps

108

____ are unnaturally swollen or distended veins in the anorectal region.

Hemorrhoids

109

____ are hemorrhoids that cannot be seen on inspection of the perineal area, and lie above the anal sphincter.

Internal

110

____ are hemorrhoids that lie below the anal sphincter and can be seen on inspection of the anal region.

External

111

____ is a syndrome associated with a variety of disorders and intestinal surgical procedures.

malabsorption

112

____ are greater than normal amounts of fat in the feces.

Steatorrhea