2.02 - Respiration - Muscles & Pressure Flashcards Preview

Speech Anatomy & Physiology > 2.02 - Respiration - Muscles & Pressure > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2.02 - Respiration - Muscles & Pressure Deck (189):
1

What is the Plural Linkage?

Two layers of tissues that encompass lungs

2

What does the Pleura connect to?

(2)

Ribs

Diphragm

3

The diaphragm pulls ______ slightly when it contracts.

Forward

4

What is the Phrenic Nerve formed by?

Nerves C3-C5

5

The right Phrenic Nerve goes __________.

In front of the lungs

6

The Left Phrenic Nerve goes ___________.

Behind the heart

7

Why does the Phrenic nerve have two distinct pathways?

To assure that the diaphragm works even when there is a spinal injury that prevents the ribs from working

8

What holds the two pleural layers together?  What does this do?

Surfacant

It connects the layers yet allows the layers to move freely without friction

9

What are the two forces the balance lung pressure?

The force on the pulmonary apparatus to collapse

The force of the chest wall to expand

10

What is the Visceral Pleura?

The pleura that encases the lungs

11

What is the Parietal Pleura?

The pleura that lines the inner aspect of the rib cage

12

What is the Pulmonary Space?  What sort of pressure does it use?

The narrow, fluid lined space linking the visceral & parietal pleurae

The linkage is held by negative pressure and reduced surface tension

13

What is Pleural Coupling?

How the pleuras are held together via negative pressure and surface tension

14

What does REL stand for?

Resting Expiratory Level

15

What is REL?

(2)

Resting Expiratory Level

When the recoil forces of the lung tissues are equivalent to the recoil forces of the rib cage

16

What is Alveolar Pressure?

The pressure INSIDE the lungs

17

Alveolar Pressure is relative to ___________.

Atmospheric Pressure

18

How do you abbreviate Alveolar Pressure?

Palv

19

What is Pleural Pressure?

The Pressure between the two plurae

20

Where is Pleural Pressure located?

In the pulmonary space

21

How do you abreviate Pleural Pressure?

Ppl

22

What is Abdominal Pressure?

The pressure within the abdomen

23

How do you abbreviate Abdominal Pressure?

Pabd

24

What happens when there is extra air between the pleura?

It prevents the lungs from expanding

25

Substances strive to achieve ______.

Equalibrium

26

What do we call the law that states that substances move from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure?

Boyle's Law

27

At a given ______, Pressure & Volume are _________.

Temperature

Inversely related

28

When the rib cage lowers, Palv ______.

Increases

(Alveolar Pressure)

29

When the diaphragm lowers, Valv _______.

Increases

(Alveolar Volume)

30

When the diaphragm lowers, Palv _______.

Decreases

(Alveolar Pressure)

31

When the abdominal cavity pushes forward, Valv ______.

Increases

(Alveolar Volume)

32

When the abdominal cavity pushes forward, Palv ______.

Decreases

(Alveolar Pressure)

33

There is a complicated interplay among the __________, ___________, and ________ that abides by the laws of physics.

Respiratory Strutures

Forces

Pressures

34

___________ are constantly a factor in respiration.

Passive forces

35

What are three passive forces present in respiration?

Tissue Recoil Force

Surface tension

Gravity

36

Muscular forces are applied ______.

Willingly

37

The pattern of muscular forces depends on what four things?

Inhalation or exhalation

Amount of air in lungs

What muscles are activated

The particular breathing activity

38

What are the two goals of the Muscles of Inspiration?

Increasing volume

Decreasing pressure

39

How do the Muscles of Inspiration decrease Alveolar Pressure?  What does this create?

By increasing lung volume

An influx of air

40

Muscles of Inspiration require _____.

Muscular Force

41

What are the two types of Inspiration?

Quiet

Forced

42

What are the three muscles used during Quiet Inspiration?

Diaphragm

Exernal Intercostals

Intercartilaginous Portion of the Internal Intercostals

43

What are the Costals?

The muscles between the ribs

44

How does the Diaphragm move?

(2)

Contracts

Recoils

45

Why do the ribs move upwards when we inhale?

To increase volume

46

Forced Inspiration required a rapid elevation of the ______ via _______.

Pectoral Girdle

Muscular Contraction

47

Forced Inspiration increases the ________.

Vertical Thoracic Dimension

48

What are the five addition muscles used in Forced Inspiration?

Sternocleidomastoid

Scalenes

Pectoralis

Subclavius

Serratus Anterior

49

What are the three Scalene Muscles?

Anterior

Posterior

Middle

50

What are the two Pectoralis Muscles?

Major

Minor

51

What is another name for Quiet Inspiration?

Tidal Breathing

52

Are the Quiet Inspiration muscles used in Forced Inspiration?

Yes

53

Expiration requires  increasing ______ though decreasing ______.

Alveolar Pressure

Lung Volume

54

Muscles of Expiration compress the _____ and the ________.

Rib Cage

Abdominal Cavity

55

Expiration may occur through either ______ or through _______.  This depends on _______ and ________.

Passive Recoil

Muscles of Expiration

Lung Volume

Breathing Goal

56

What are the five Chest (Thoracic?) Muscles involved in Forced Expiration?

Interosseous Portion of the Internal Intercostals

Transverse Thoracis

Serratus Posterior Inferior

Quadratus Lumborum

Latissimus Dorsi

57

What are the Four Abdominal Muscles involved in Forced Expiration?

Exernal & Internal Oblique

Transversus & Rectus Abdominus

58

What does "rectus" refer to?

Central

59

What are Lung Volumes?

(2)

Nonoverlapping quantities

Smallest increments

60

What are Lung Capacities?

Measurements containing two or more lung volumes

61

What are the four Lung Volumes?

IRV (Inspiratory Reserve Volumes)

TV (Tidal Volume

ERV (Expiratory Reserve Volume)

RV (Residual Volume)

62

What does IRV stand for?

Inspiratory Reserve Volume

63

What is IRV?

The extra air above TV (Tidal Volume) until maxium capacity

64

What does TV stand for?

Tidal Volume

65

What is TV?

Quiet breathing

66

What does ERV stand for?

Expiratory Reserve Volume

67

What is ERV?

TV (Tidal Volume) to Maxium Exhalation

68

What does RV stand for?

Residual Volume

69

What is RV?

The air that cannot be exspired from lungs

70

What are the four Lung Capacities?

TLC (Total Lung Capacity)

VC (Vital Capacity)

IC (Inspiratory Capacity)

FRC (Functional Residual Capacity)

71

What does TLC stand for?

Total Lung Capacity

72

What is TLC?

All the air in the lungs

(All four volumes)

73

What does VC stand for?

Vital Capacity

74

What is VC?

The amount of air in the lungs that can be voluntarily exchanged

75

What volumes comprise VC?

All  - EXCEPT - RV (Residual Volume)

76

What does IC stand for?

Inspiratory Capacity

77

What is IC?

The amount of air that can be inspired at REL (Resting Expiratory Level)

78

What does IC contain?

IRV (Inspiratory Reserve Volume)

TV (Tidal Volume)

79

What does FRC Stand for?

Functional Residual Capacity

80

What is FRC?

The amount of air in lungs at REL (Resting Expiratory Capacity)

81

What does FRC contain?

ERV (Expiratory Reserve Volume)

RV (Residual Volume)

82

A muscle that has been engaged experiences _____ whih is the __________.

Recoil force

Pressure on the muscle to relax

83

What do we look at when we graph lung pressure?

(2)

Alveolar Pressure (X-Axis)

Volume of air in lungs (Y-Axis)

84

What does Alveolar Pressure tell us?

How much a muscle wants to relax?

85

What do we measure Alveolar Pressure in?

cm H2O

(How much air it takes to displace 1cm of H2O

86

What do we measure lung volume in?

% of Vital Capacity (VC)

87

When atmospheric pressuer is the same as Alveolar Pressure, this is called ___ and the pressure is ___.

Equalibrium

0

88

The volume of lungs at equalibrium is ____%.

40%

89

REL is at what lung volume?

40%

90

At Atmospheric Equalibrium, the lungs are _____ and there is ___ Alveolar Pressure.

At rest

0

91

At high lung volume, there is a significant amount of pressure on the _______ to relax.  This is called ______.

Inspiratory Muscles

Positive Relaxation Pressure

92

Positive Relaxation Pressure means ________.

The muscles want to exhale

93

When you have exhaled past REL, there is a significant amount of pressure for the ______ to relax.  What is this called?

Expiratory Muscles

Negative Relaxation Pressure

94

What is Negative Relaxation Pressure?

The muscles want to inhale

95

What a Relaxation Pressure Curve?

A plot of the pressure on muscles to relax during both inhalation and expiration

96

Are Relaxation Pressures active or passive?

Passive

97

Relaxation Pressure = _____ + ______

Lung Recoil Forces

Chest Recoil Forces

 

(The sum of the two)

98

What is Mechanical Equilibrium?

When the chest muscles are at rest and there is no relaxation pressure on the muscles

99

Mechanical Equilibirum is at ___% VC (Vital Capacity)

55%

100

If there is pressure on the muscles/tissues to relax, then there must be ________.  What are these called?

Some force to prevent that recoil/relaxation

Checking forces

101

For positive relaxation pressure, when the inspiratory muscles want to relax, we must ___________.

Activate the very same muscles to counteract or "check" relaxation pressure

102

When mucles want to inhale following exhalation beyond the REL, the expiratory muscles must _____________.

Hold the chest and lungs in the compressed position to prevent inspiration

103

Checking forces must __________.

Counteract Relaxation Pressure

104

It takes about ________ of pressure to sustain speech

8 cm H2O

105

Are the abdominal muscles usually needed for normal/passive expiration?

No

106

During sustained phonation, Lung Volume _______.

Dramatically decreases

107

During sustained phonation, Alveolar Pressure ________.

Stays constant

108

During sustained phonation, Rib Cage Wall Pressure _______.

Becomes smaller

109

During sustained phonation, Abdominal Wall Volume _______.

Becomes smaller

110

Sustained Phonation requires _______ to maintain _________.

Constant subglottal pressure

Constant loudness

111

What is another name for subglottal pressure?

Alveolar pressure

112

In Connected Speech the airway is _____ and _____ due to the ________.

Constricted

Chopped up

Consonants

113

In Connected Speech, subglottal pressure demands _____ and loudness _______________.

Vary

Changes with message

114

If I am yelling, I am using ______ pressure

Positive

115

If I am sucking on a straw, I am using ______ pressure

Negative

116

Since the trachea is essentially a ______, the subglottal pressure of the vocal folds is approximately equal to ____________.

Closed tube

Alveolar pressure

117

Loud speech uses _____ alveolar pressure.

High targeted

118

Quiet speech uses _____ alveolar pressure.

Low targeted

119

When a LOUD Speaker has a LARGE lung volume, there is _____ Muscle Pressure.

Less

120

When a LOUD Speaker has a LARGE lung volume, there is _____ Checking Forces.

Less

121

When a LOUD Speaker has a SMALL (LOW) lung volume, there is _____ Muscle Pressure.

More

122

When a Loud Speaker has a SMALL (LOW) lung volume, there is _____ Checking Forces.

More

123

When a QUIET Speaker has a LARGE lung volume, there is _____ Muscle Pressure.

More

124

When a Quiet Speaker has a LARGE lung volume, there is _____ Checking Forces.

More

125

When a Quiet Speaker has a SMALL (LOW) lung volume, there is _____ Muscle Pressure.

Less

126

When a Quiet Speaker has a SMALL (LOW) lung volume, there is _____ Checking Forces.

Less

127

If you have more inspiratory muscluature, you are using ______ checking forces.

More

128

More expiratory effort means _______ checking forces.

more

129

Relaxation pressure refers to _________.

(2)

Recoil force

Gravity

130

Who activates more inspiratory musculature at 80% VC: a quiet or a loud speaker?

Quiet

131

Who exerts more checking force at 90% VC: a quiet or a loud speaker?

Quiet

132

Who exerts more relaxation pressure at 40% VC: a quiet or a loud speaker?

Neither

133

Who exerts more expiratory effort at 30% VC: a quiet or a loud speaker?

Loud

134

Who generates more alveolar pressure: a quiet or a loud speaker?

Loud

135

Who generates higher subglottal pressure: a quiet or a loud speaker?

Loud

136

Label the following:

A = Maximum Inspiration

B = Relaxation

C = Maximum Expiration

137

 Label the following:

A = Pressure on exhalation muscles to relax

B = Pressure on the inhalation muscles to relax

138

  Label the following:

A = Utterance

B = Relaxation

C = Inspiratory Effort

D = Expiratory Effort

139

  Label the following:

A = Diaphragm

B = Rib Cage Wall (Inspiratory)

C = Rib Cage Wall (Expiratory)

D = Abdominal Wall

140

  Label the following:

A = Conversation Speaking

B = Loud Speaking

141

  Label the following:

A = Transdiaphragmatic pressure

B = Alveolar pressure

C = Pleural pressure

D = Abdominal pressure

142

  Label the following:

A = Vigorous vomiting

B = Classical singing

C = Conversational speaking

D = Resting tidal breathing

143

  Label the following:

A = Maximum inspiration

B = Vigorous yawning (inspiration)

C = Classical singing (inspiration)

144

  Label the following:

A = Conversational speaking (inspiration)

B = Resting tidal breathing

C = Relaxation at the end of a quiet breath

145

  Label the following:

A = Vigorous laughing (expiration)

B = Maximum expiration

C = Unusable range

146

  Label the following:

A = IRV (Inspiratory Reserve Capacity)

B = TV (Tidal Volume)

C = ERV (Expiratory Reserve Capacity)

D = RV (Residual Capacity)

147

  Label the following:

A = Maximum inspiration

B = Resting level

C = Maximum expiration

148

  Label the following:

A = TLC ( Total Lung Capacity)

B = IC (Inspiraory Capacity)

C = FRC (Functional Residual Capacity)

D = VC (Vital Capacity)

149

  Label the following:

A = Lung Volume

B = Alveolar Pressure

C = Rib Cage Wall Pressure

D = Abdominal Wall Volume

 

150

  Label the following:

A = Fewer checking forces

B = More checking forces

C = More checking forces

D = Fewer checking forces

151

  Label the following:

A = Relaxation pressure = 0

B = REL (Resting Expiration Level)

152

  Label the following:

A = Positive Relaxation Pressure

B = Negative Relaxation Pressure

153

 Label the following and tell if it deals with inspiration or expiration:

A = Cartilaginous part of the Internal Intercostals (Inspiration)

B = External Intercostals (Inspiration)

C = Osseous part of the intercostals (Expiration)

154

What is the main connection of the diaphragm?

Central tendon

155

What does the diaphragm do?

(3)

Depresses central tendon

Enlarges thorax

Distends abdomen

156

What do the external intercostals connect to?

Inferior surface of the ribs

157

What do the external intercostals do?

(3)

Elevates ribs

Pull ribs up, out, & together

Move up & away from sternum

158

What do the intercartilaginous portion of the internal intercostals connect to?

Inferior margin of ribs in the cartilageous region

159

What do the intercartilaginous portion of the internal intercostals do?

(3)

Elevate ribs 1-11

Pull ribs up, out, & together

Moves up and inward towards sternum

160

What does the Sternocleidomastoid connect to?

(2)

Mastoid

Sternum/Clavicle

161

What does the Sternocleidomastoid do?

(2)

Elevates the sternum & rib cage

Pulls up

162

What does the Scalenes (anterior, posterior, middle) connect to?

(2)

Ribs

Vertebrae

163

What do the Scalenes (anterior, posterior, middle) do?

Elevates ribs

164

What do the Pectoralis major connect to?

(2)

Sternal head

Humerus a

165

 What do the Pectoralis major do?

(2)

Elevates sternum and thus the rib cage

Pulls up on chest

166

What do the Pectoralis minor conenct to?

(2)

Anterior surface of upper ribs

Scapula

167

What do the Pectoralis minor do?

Increases tranverse dimensions of rib cage

168

What does the Subclavius connect to?

(2)

Clavicle

Rib 1

169

What does the Subclavius do?

(2)

Elevates rib 1

Pulls up slightly

170

What does the Serratus anterior connect to?

(2)

Ribs 1-9

Vertebral border of scapula

171

What does the Serratus anterior do?

(2)

Elevates ribs 1-9

Pulls up slightly

172

What does the Interosseous portion of internal intercostals conenct to?

Inferior Margin of Ribs 1-11

 

173

What does the Interosseous portion of internal intercostals do?

Depresses ribs

174

What does the Transversus thoracis connect to?

(2)

Sternum

Ribs 2-6

175

What does the Transversus thoracis do?

Depresses rib cage

176

What does the Serratus posterior inferior connect to?

(2)

Vertebrae

Lower ribs

177

What does the Serratus posterior inferior do?

Pulls rib cage down

178

What does the Quadratus lumborum connect to?

(2)

Iliac crest

Vertebrae & ribs

179

What does the Quadratus lumborum do?

Supports abdominal compression

180

What does the Latissimus dorsi connect to?

(2)

Vertebrae

Humurus

181

What does the Latissimus dorsi do?

(3)

Stabilizes posterior abdominal wall for expiration

Raises or lowers rib cage

It can help with Inspiration but usually is is used in EXPIRATION

182

What does the External oblique connect to?

(2)

Lower seven ribs

Iliac crest

183

What does the External oblique do?

Compresses abdomen

184

What does the Internal oblique connect to?

(2)

Iliac crest

Lower ribs

185

What does the Internal oblique do?

Compresses abdomen

186

What does the Transversus abdominus connect to?

(2)

Vertebrae

Lower ribs

187

What does the Transversus abdominus do?

Compresses abdomen

188

What does the Rectus abdominus connect to?

(2)

Pubis 

Sternum and rib cartilige

189

What does the Rectus abdominus do?

Flexion of vertebral column