23/24 Nervous System Flashcards Preview

*Clinical Medicine* > 23/24 Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in 23/24 Nervous System Deck (43):
1

a person's external expression of his/her inner emotional state

affect

2

continued pupillary dilation instead of constriction in the eye with a pre-chiasmic optic pathway lesion (e.g. optic neuritis) in response to shining a light in the damaged eye after first shining it in the normal eye

afferent pupillary defect (marcus-gunn pupil)

3

a loss of ability to express oneself in writing due to central lesion or to muscular incoordination

agraphia

4

inability to sit down because the though of doing so causes severe anxiety. patient has a feeling of restlessness and an urgent need of movement and complains of a feeling of muscular quivering

akathisia (acathisia)

5

complete or partial loss of muscle movement

akinesia

6

refers to a behavior used to limit pain

antalgic

7

inability to express oneself properly through speech, or loss of verbal comprehension. it is considered to be complete or total when both sensory and motor areas are involved

aphasia

8

impaired ability to coordinate muscular movement usually associated with staggering gait and postural imbalance

ataxia

9

slow, twisting, writhing movements, with larger amplitude than chorea, commonly involving the hands

atheotosis

10

an acute paralysis or weakness of one side of the face that is temporary

bell palsy

11

a general name for a large group of persisting, nonprogressive motor disorders appearing in young children and resulting from brain damage caused by birth trauma or intrauterine pathology

cerebral palsy

12

dance-like, involuntary rapid movemenss. can be associated with huntington disease, rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus and other conditions

chorea

13

rapidly alternating involuntary contraction and relaxation of skeletal muscles

clonus

14

irrecoverable deteriorative mental state, the common end result of many entities. loss of memory and other intellectual functions that is of sufficient severity to interfere with daily functioning

dementia

15

double vision caused by defective function of the extraocular muscles or a disorder of the nerves that innervate the muscles

diplopia

16

defective articulation secondary to a motor deficit involving the lips, tongue, palate, or pharynx (inability to pronounce or articulate words)

dysarthria

17

inability to quickly substitute antagonistic motor impulses to produce antagonistic muscular movements. inability to perform rapid alternating movements (pronation/supination of hands) indicates cerebellar dysfunction

dysdiadochokinesia

18

sensations, as of the pricks of pins and needles, or crawling

dysesthesia

19

defect in voluntary movement. term usually used in relation to various extrapyramidal disorders

dyskinesia

20

impairment of speech resulting from a brain lesion

dysphasia

21

difficulty in speaking; hoarseness. often related to weakness of laryngeal muscles, in which sound production is impaired.

dysphonia

22

impaired or disordered tonicity, especially muscle tone (involuntary muscle spasms)

dystonia

23

an acute inflammation of the brain and spinal cord

encephalitis

24

a localized, uncoordinated twitching of a single muscle group innervated by a single motor nerve filament; it is visible or palpable (involuntary)

fasciculations

25

fluent, effortless speech; words are malformed, may be totally incomprehensible. can hear words but cannot relate them to previous experiences. impairment of language comprehension including impaired repetition due to lesion of the posterior left superior temporal gyrus

fluent aphasia (wernicke's or receptive aphasia)

26

the ability to recognize symbols, shapes, numbers, and letters traced on the skin

graphesthesia

27

blindness for half the field of vision in one or both eyes (indicating a pathological process posterior to the optic chiasm)

hemianopia

28

jerking and twitching movements of one side of the body (involuntary violent flinging or jerking of a limb or limbs in an uncoordinated manner caused by a lesion of the contralateral subthalamus)

hemiballismus

29

inflammation of the meninges

meningitis

30

a progressive autoimmune disorder which causes a degeneration of the myelin sheath of the brain's white matter

MS multiple scelorsis

31

a congenital defect of the spine that allows the spinal contents to protrude

myelomeningocele (spina bifida)

32

any pathological condition of the spinal cord

myelopathy

33

twitching or clonic spasm of a muscle or group of muscles

myoclonus

34

any disease or abnormal condition of striated muscle (weakness that is usually proximal >> distal)

myopathy

35

cannot express oneself using language; few words; laborious effort; primarily uses nouns and verbs (eat pie, get mail) fair to good word comprehension (due to lesion of left inferior frontal lobe)

non-fluent aphasia

36

stiff neck

nuchal rigidity

37

temporary suspension or permanent loss of function (especially loss of sensation or voluntary motion)

paralysis

38

partial or incomplete paralysis

paresis

39

unusual sensation such as numbness, tingling, or burning

paresthesia

40

a condition commonly seen in diabetes of the PNS resulting in a decrease in both motor and sensory function

peripheral neuropathy

41

ability to recognize form of solid objects by touch

stereogenesis

42

sudden disruption of blood flow to the brain

stroke (cerebrovascular accident- CVA)

43

an involuntary movement of a part or parts of the body resulting from alternate contractions of opposite muscles. the trembling may be fine or coarse, rapid or slow, may appear on movement (intention tremor) or improve when the part is employed

tremor