Eyes Lab Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

*Clinical Medicine* > Eyes Lab Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Eyes Lab Vocabulary Deck (62):
1

Accommodation

Adjustment of the eye for various distances through modification of the lens curvature

2

Amsler grid

A set of charts with various geometric shapes in black and white, used for detecting defects of the central visual field

3

Anisocoria

Inequality of the diameter of the pupils; may be normal or congenital

Often normal if inequality is within 1 mm

4

Aphakia

A condition in which part or all of the crystalline lens of the eye is absent, usually because of surgical removal for the treatment of cataracts

5

Aqueous humor

The watery transparent liquid containing trace albumin and small amount of salts produced by the iris, ciliary body, and cornea

It circulates through the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye

6

Astigmatism

An abnormal condition in which the light rays cannot be focused clearly in a point on the retina because of an irregular curvature of the cornea or lens

7

Cataracts

Opacity of the lens

Most commonly resulting from denaturation of the lens protein caused by aging

8

Chalazion

Small, hard tumor analogous to sebaceous cyst developing on the eye lids

Formed by the distension of a meibomian gland with secretion

9

Choroid

The middle vascular tunic of the eye lying between the retina and the sclera

Dark brown vascular coat of the eye between the sclera and retina, extending from ora serrata to optic nerve

Consists of blood vessels united by connective tissue containing pigmented cells and is made up of five layers

10

Ciliary Body

The thickened part of the vascular tunic of the eye that joins the iris with the anterior portion of the choroid

Consists of three zones: ciliary disc, ciliary crown, and ciliary muscle

11

Cones

The photosensitive, outward-directed, conical process of a cone cell essential for sharp vision and color vision

Only photoreceptor in the fovea centralis and become increasingly interspersed with increasing numbers of rods toward the periphery of the retina

12

Confrontation

A test for estimating peripheral vision

13

Conjunctiva

The mucous membrane investing the anterior surface of the eyeball and the posterior surface of the lids

14

Conjunctivitis

Inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by infectious agents or by allergies

aka Pinkeye

15

Cornea

The clear, transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye comprising about 1/6 of its surface

Chief refractory structure of the eye

16

Corneal arcus
(called arcus juvenilis if seen in younger people)

Opaque white ring about the corneal periphery, seen in many individuals older than 60 years of age

Due to deposit of lipids in the cornea or to hyaline degeneration

May indicate a lipid disorder, most commonly type II hyperlipidemia if present before 40

17

Cotton wool spot

An ill-defined yellow area due to infarction of the nerve layer of the retina

18

Depth perception

Perception of spatial relationships; three dimensional perception

The visual ability to judge depth or distance

19

Diabetic retinopathy (background)

Condition characterized by dot hemorrhages or microaneurysms and the presence of hard and soft exudates

20

Diabetic retinopathy (proliferative)

Condition characterized by development of new vessels as a result of anoxic simulation

Vessels grow out of the retina toward the vitreous humor

21

Diopter

Refractive power of the lens with focal distance of 1 meter

Used as a unit of measurement in refraction

22

Diplopia

The condition in which a single object is perceived as two objects (double vision)

23

Drusen

Tiny yellow or white deposits in the retina of the eye or on the optic nerve head

24

Ectropion

Eversion of an edge or margin as in the edge of the eyelid

25

Episcleritis

Inflammation of the superficial layers of the sclera located in front of the insertion of the rectus muscle

26

Entropion

Inversion of an edge or margin as in the margin of the lower eyelid

27

Exophthalmos

An increase in the volume of the orbital content causing a protrusion of the globes forward

Can be bilateral or unilateral

Most common cause is Grave's disease (thyroid disease), but unilateral protrusion tends to indicate a retro-orbital tumor

28

Farsightedness

An error of refraction in which, with accommodation completely relaxed, parallel rays come to focus behind the brain

29

Glaucoma

A disease of the optic nerve wherein the nerve cells die, producing increased cupping appearance of the optic nerve

Abnormal condition of elevated pressure within an eye resulting from obstruction of the outflow of aqueous humor

Produces defects in the visual field and may result in blindness

30

Hemianopia

Blindness for half the field of vision in one or both eyes

31

Hordeolum (sty)

A suppurative inflammation of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid

32

Hyperopia (farsightedness)

A refractive error in which light rays entering the eye are focused behind the retina

33

Hypertelorism

Eyes spaced widely apart

34

Hyphema

Blood in the anterior chamber of the eye in front of the iris

35

Iris

The colored contractile membrane suspended between the lens and cornea in the aqueous humor of the eye

Separates the anterior and posterior chambers of the eyeball

Perforated in the center by the pupil

By contraction and dilation it regulates the entrance of light

36

Iritis

Inflammation of the iris

37

Legal Blindness

Vision in the better eye, corrected by glasses, is 20/200 or less

In a constricted field of vision, 20 degrees or less in better eye

38

Macula (aka fovea)

Site of central vision

39

Mydriasis

Pupillary dilation

40

Miosis

Abnormal contraction of pupils

41

Myopia (nearsightedness)

A condition resulting from a refractive error in which light rays entering the eye are brought into focus in front of the retina

42

Night blindness

Decreased ability to see in reduced illumination

Seen in patients with impaired rod function

Often associated with a deficiency of vitamin A

43

Nystagmus

Involuntary rhythmic movements of the eyes

Oscillations may be horizontal, vertical, rotary, or mixed

44

Papilledema

Edema of the optic disc resulting in loss of definition of the disc margin

The cause is often increased intracranial pressure

45

Peripheral vision

Vision resulting from retinal stimulation beyond the macula

46

Pinguecula

A harmless yellowish triangular nodule in the bulbar conjunctiva on either side of the iris that stops at the limbus

47

Presbyopia

Hyperopia (farsightedness) and impaired near vision from loss of lens elasticity, generally developing during middle age

48

Pterygium

A triangular thickening of the bulbar conjunctiva that grows slowly to the outer surface of the cornea, usually from the nasal side, and may cover a portion of the cornea

49

Ptosis

Drooping of one or both upper eyelids

50

Punctum

The tiny aperture (opening) in the margin of each eyelid that opens to the lacrimal duct

51

Red reflex

A response caused by light illuminating the retina

52

Refraction

The act of determining the nature and degree of the refractive errors in the eye and correction of them by lenses

53

Retina

The sensory network of the eye that transforms light impulses into electrical impulses, which are transmitted through the optic nerve

54

Retinitis pigmentosa

A chronic progressive disease, which may occur in childhood, characterized by degeneration of the retinal neuroepithelium

55

Retinoblastoma

Embryonic malignant glioma arising from the retina usually during the first two years of life

Initial diagnostic finding is usually a yellowish or white light reflex seen at the pupil (Cat's eye reflex)

56

Rods

The photosensitive, outward-directed process of a rhodopsin-containing rod cell in the external granular layer of the retina

Many millions of such rods, together with the cones, form the photoreceptive layer of rods and cones

57

Sclera

A tough white fibrous tissue which covers the so-called white of the eye

It extends from the optic nerve to the cornea

58

Scleritis

Superficial and deep inflammation of the sclera

59

Strabismus

A condition in which both eyes do not focus on the same object simultaneously, however either eye can focus independently

60

Uveitis

Inflammation of the iris, ciliary body, and choroid or the entire uvea

61

Vitreous body

A transparent jellylike substance that fills the cavity of the eyeball, enclosed by the hyaloid membrane

Composed of a delicate network (vitreous stroma) enclosing in its meshes a watery fluid (vitreous humor)

62

Xanthelasma

An elevated plague commonly found on the nasal portion of the eyelid due to elevated cholesterol