23 Gastroenteritis Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology > 23 Gastroenteritis > Flashcards

Flashcards in 23 Gastroenteritis Deck (14):
1

What are the presenting complaints of gastroenteritis?
Complications?

Acute onset V+D with mucous + blood. Abdo pain, fever.
Dehydration, toxic megacolon, renal failure, GBS, HUS, Salmonella.

2

What are the investigation for gastroenteritis?

Bloods: FBC, U&E, CRP, culture.
AXR if severe.
Stool MC&S, OCP, C.diff toxin, viral PCR.

3

What is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis?
Disease course? Management?

Norovirus.
Projectile vomiting.
24-48hrs. Prevent dehydration.

4

Which organisms cause parasitic gastroenteritis?

Cryptosporidium
Guardia lambia.
Entamoeba histolyca.

5

How is cryptosporidiosis spread?

Waterborne disease, oocytes are resistant to chlorine based disinfectants.

6

Which bacterial gastroenteritis' are caused by enterotoxin production? (6)

Vibrio cholerae.
Escherichia coli (ETEC + VTEC).
Clostridium perfringens.
Staph aureus.
Bacillus cereus.
C. diff.

7

Which bacterial gastroenteritis' are caused by adherence of the organism? (4)

Shigella sonnei/flexneri.
E. coli (EAEC).
Campylobacter jejuni.
Salmonellae.

8

Which strains of E.coli result in HUS?
How?

Enterohaemorrhagic.
EHEC/VTEC.
e.g. E.coli O157 - shiga toxin virulence factor- premature destruction of RBCs, detritus blocks kidneys.

9

How is gastroenteritis treated?

Supportive - avoid antibiotics as may increase salmonella carriage duration and worsen HUS.
Except in young, very old, campylobacter infection of sepsis.

10

What is antibiotic associated diarrhoea?

2-30% patients after antibiotics.
Disruption of microflora, change in metabolism and overgrowth of pathogenic organisms.

11

Which organisms are responsible for antibiotic associated diarrhoea?

C. diff.
C.perfrinfens, S.aureas, Candida, Klebsiella, Salmonella.

12

Which antibiotics are high risk for C.diff infection?

Cephalosporins.
Clindamycin.

13

Which antibiotics are medium risk for C.diff infection?

Ampicillin/amoxycillin.
Co-trimoxazole.
Macrolides.
Fluoroquinolones (O217 completely unaffected by these).

14

What is the therapy for C. diff infection?

Oral metronidazole/vancomycin until resolution of diarrhoea.
Risk factor for VRE selection.
New: Oral fidaxomicin.

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