17 URTI's Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 17 URTI's Deck (21):
1

What is the aetiology and symptoms of rhino-sinusitis?
Complications? (3)

Post viral inflammation - nasal pain and blockage, reduction in smell.
Osteomyelitis, meningitis, cerebral abscess.

2

How is rhino-sinusitis managed? (3)

Imaging for severe complications. Sinus washouts.
Amoxicillin if severe + bacterial.

3

What are the signs of pharyngitis? (6)

S/T
Dysphagia
Fever
Headache
Red tonsillar area ± exudate.
Lymphadenopathy.

4

Who gets Group A Strep Pharyngitis?
Common complications? (3)
Prevention of these?

Children.
Acute gloemrulonephritis, rheumatic fever, scarlet fever.
Penicillin to prevent.

5

Symptoms of EBV pharyngitis? (30
Complications?
What to avoid?

S/T, fever, cervical lymphadenopathy.
Splenic rupture.
Ampicillin: causes mac-pap rash.

6

Which organism causes diphtheria pharyngitis?
Symptoms?
Rx? (3)

Corynebacterium diphtheria.
Non-specific.
Erythromycin/penicillin/antitoxin.

7

What is epiglottis?
Symptoms? (6)

Medical emergency.
2-4yrs
Fever, hot potato voice, difficulty swallowing, leans forward, drools, stridor.

8

What should be avoided in epiglottitis?
Rx?

Anything in throat - asphyxiate.
Maintain airway, cefotaxime.

9

Symptoms of acute laryngitis? (5)
Disease course?

Hoarse voice, globus pharyngeus, fever, myalgia, dysphagia.
Viral + self-limiting.

10

What is acute laryngotracheobronchitis?
Who gets it?
Cause?

Croup - inflame of larynx + trachea after URTI.
Children.
Viral- parainfluenza type 2.

11

Cause of whooping cough?
Course of disease? (2)

Bordetella pertussis.
Initial catarrhal phase - URTI Sx.
Later: dry cough, whooping (short exhalation, inspiratory gasp).

12

Rx of whooping cough?
Complications? (4)
Management?

Supportive and erythromycin.
Otitis media, pneumonia, convulsions, subconjunctival haemorrhages.
Erythromycin to household.

13

Causes of acute otitis externa?
Treatment?

S aureus (if pustular), pseudomonas (swimming).
Saline/alcohol + acetic acid. topical drops.

14

Cause of chronic otitis externa?
Treatment?

Irritation from drainage from perforated tympanic membrane.
Avoid ahminoglycosides (gentamicin) if perforation.

15

What is malignant otitis external?
Cause?
Who in? (3)
Rx?

Severe, necrotising. Life threatening: may invade brain.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Elderly, diabetics, immunosuppressed.
Ceftazidime then ciprofloxacin.

16

Symptoms of otitis media? (4)
Causes? (3)

Fever, pain, red bulging tympanic membrane, impaired hearing.
H influenza, S pneumonia, M catarrhalis.

17

What is mastoiditis?
Rx?

Inflamm of mastoid air cells after middle ear infection.
Co-amoxiclav.

18

Which antibiotics are commonly used for URTI?

Penicillin and amoxicillin.
Erythromycin (if pen allergic and whooping cough/diptheria).

19

What is the normal flora of the URT? (4).

Streptococcus viridians.
Commensal Neisseria
Diphtheroids.
Anaerobes.

20

Which organisms transiently colonise the URT after antibiotics? (3)

Coliforms.
Pseudomonas.
Candida.

21

Which respiratory pathogens may be carried asymptomatically? (5)

Streptococcus pneumoniae
Streptococcus pyogenes
Moraxella catarrhalis
Haemophilus influenzae
Neisseria meningitidis

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