42 Paediatric haematology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 42 Paediatric haematology Deck (17):
1

How are RBCs in a child different to those in an adult? (3).

Greater oxygen affinity (foetus).
Higher haematocrit.
Larger RBCs.

2

Between 4 and 14 weeks which types of haemoglobin does the foetus have? (3)

Hb Gower-1
Hb Portland.
Hb Gower-2.

3

What is the structure of Hb Gower-1?

ζ2e2. (zeta)

4

What is the structure of Hb Portland?

ζ2γ2.

5

What is the structure of Hb Gower-2?

α2e2.

6

Which type of immunoglobulin crosses the placenta?

IgG.

7

When does a child start producing antibodies?
When does a satisfactory immune response occur?

2-3 months.
6 months.

8

How do platelets at birth differ to those of an adult?

Hyporesponsive to some agonists.
Hyperesponsive to vWF.

9

Which haemostatatic factors are normal at birth?
When do they all reach normal values?

Fibrinogen, FV, FVIII, FXIII.
6 months.

10

What level of via K does a foetus have compared to mother?

10%.

11

What are the congenital causes of anaemia in childhood? (3).

Haemoglobinopathy.
Peripheral destruction.
Blood loss.

12

What are the causes of peripheral destruction of blood in a child? (4).

Foetal: Rh/ABO incompatibility.
Hereditary spherocytosis.
Defect: G6PD deficiency, PK deficiency.
Infection.

13

Name two causes of foetal blood loss:

Twin to twin transfusion syndrome.
Fetomaternal haemorrhage.

14

What are the acquired causes of anaemia in childhood? (3).

Nutritional deficiency: IRON, B12, folate.
Bone marrow failure.
Bone marrow infiltration.

15

What are the causes of platelet problems in a neonate? (4).

Mothers drugs.
Gestational thrombocytopenia.
ITP.
Neonatal immune thrombocytopenia.

16

Which tumour presents as two black eyes in a child?

Neuroblastoma with retro-orbital extension.

17

Name four immune disorders causing bleeding and bruising in childhood.

Immune thrombocytopenia.
TTP.
SLE.
ALPS (autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome).

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