35 Intro to haematology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 35 Intro to haematology Deck (24):
1

Describe the properties of a haemopoetic stem cell: (4).

Differential potential for all lineages.
High proliferative potential.
Long term activity throughout lifespan.
Self renewal.

2

Describe the four fates of a haemopoetic stem cell.

Symmetric self renewal: no progeny differentiation.
Asymmetric self renewal: 50% progeny differentiation.
Lack of self renewal: all progeny differentiate.
Lack of self renewal: no progeny.

3

Which blood cells are of myeloid lineage?

Granulocytes.
Erythrocytes.
Platelets.

4

Which blood cells are of lymphoid lineage?

B-lymphocytes.
T-lymphocytes.

5

When does heamopoesis start?

Day 9 of the trophoblast.

6

When does foetal haemopoesis start for the second time?
Describe the process.

Day 27 in the gonadal mesonephros region.
Expands rapidly after day 35, disappears at day 40 when cells migrate to liver.

7

Describe the lifespan and shape of red blood cells.

120 days.
Biconcave discs 7.5µM diameter.

8

When does relative polycythaemia occur?

When plasma volume is reduced.

9

What are the three types of granulocytes?

Eosinophils.
Basophils.
Neutrophils.

10

Which type of white cell is the most common in adult blood?
Lifespan?

Neutrophils.
Hours.

11

Which blood cell is part of the primitive immune system?

Basophils.

12

What is the function of monocytes?

Phagocytes.
Antigen presenting cells.

13

What are the other names for monocytes? (3)

Macrophages/histiocytes when in tissue.
Kupffer cells in liver.
Langerhaan cells in skin.

14

What are the four types of lymphocytes?

Natural killer cells.
B lymphocytes.
T lymphocytes.
Plasma cells.

15

What is the simple function of NK cells?

Recognise non self cells.

16

Simply, what are B lymphocytes involved in?

Adaptive/humoral immunity.

17

Simply, what are the function of T lymphocytes? (4)

Adaptive immune system.
Target cytotoxicity.
Regulate immune response.
Interact with B cells and macrophages.

18

What are platelets derived from?

Bone marrow megakaryocytes.

19

What does a full blood count include?

Haemoglobin concentration.
Mean cell volume and mean cell haemoglobin.
White cell count.
Platelet count.

20

Where is a bone marrow aspirate taken from?

Posterior iliac crest of the pelvis.

21

What percentage of results fall within reference ranges?

95%.

22

What are the causes of microcytic hypo chromic anaemia? (5).

Iron deficiency.
Thalassaemia.
Lead poisoning.
Deficiency of chronic disease (some).
Sideroblastic anaemia (some).

23

What causes normocytic normochromic anaemia? (6).

Haemolytic anaemia.
Anaemia of chronic disease (some).
Acute blood loss.
Renal disease.
Mixed deficiencies.
Bone marrow failure.

24

What causes microcytic anaemia? (4,2)

Non-megaloblastic: alcohol, liver disease, myelodysplasia, aplastic anaemia.
Megaloblastic: vit B12/folate deficiency.

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