6 Childhood viral vaccinations Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology > 6 Childhood viral vaccinations > Flashcards

Flashcards in 6 Childhood viral vaccinations Deck (33):
1

Which viral infections are notifiable diseases? (6).

Acute meningitis.
Acute poliomyelitis.
Measles.
Mumps.
Rubella.
Smallpox.

2

Which virus causes measles?
Transmission?
Infectivity?
Incubation?

Paramyxovirus.
Droplet.
4 days before rash to 4 days after.
7-18 days

3

Clinical features of measles. (5).

Type of rash?

Rash + fever + cough/ coryza/ conjuctivitis.
Erythematous, maculopapular, head to trunk. Koplik's spots (white, inside cheek) 1-2 days before rash.

4

Complications of measles. (5).

Otitis media.
Pneumonia.
Diarrhoea.
Acute Encephalitis.
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis- fatal 7-30yrs after.

5

How is measles diagnosed?
Treated?
Prevented?

Clinical, leukopenia, oral fluid sample, serology.
Supportive + ?antibiotics.
MMR vaccine live 1yr/preschool.

6

Which virus causes chickenpox?
Transmission?
Infectivity?
Incubation?

Varicella zoster.
Droplet.
2 days before rash until vesicles dry.
14-15 days

7

Clinical features of chickenpox. (3).

Type of rash?

Fever, malaise, anorexia.
Centripetal rash. Macular > papular > vesicle > pustular.

8

Complications of VZV? (6).

Pneumonitis.
CNS involvement.
Thrombocytopenia purpora.
Foetal varicella zoster syndrome.
Congenital varicella.
Shingles.

9

How is chickenpox diagnosed?
Treated?

Clinical. PCR.
Symptomatic adults and immunocompromised children. Acyclovir. Chlorpheniramine to relieve itch.

10

How is VZV prevented?

Vaccine - 2 live doses.
VZV immunoglobulin if significant exposure, immunocompromised/ pregnant/ neonate + no antibodies. Reduces infection or severity.

11

Which virus causes rubella?
Transmission?
Infectivity?
Incubation?

Togavirus.
Droplet.
1 week before rash, 4 days after.
14-21 days.

12

Clinical features of rubella.

Type of rash?

50% are asymptomatic.
Post auricular and sub occipital lymphadenopathy.
Transient and erythematous rash behind ears and on face/neck.

13

Complications of rubella? (3).

Thrombocytopenia.
Post infectious encephalitis.
Arthritis.

14

Effect of rubella in pregnancy? (7).

Congenital rubella syndrome.
Cataracts, deafness, abnormal heart, microcephaly, growth retardation, inflammatory lesions in organs.

15

Transmission risk of rubella in pregnancy?

Under 11 weeks: 90%
11-16 weeks: 20%
16-20 weeks: minimal risk, deafness only
20 weeks: no increased risk.

16

How is rubella diagnosed and treated?

IgM/G detectable from rash.
No Rx.
Immunoglobulin if pregnant.
Vaccine in MMR.

17

Clinical features of Parovirus B19? (6).

Minor respiratory.
Slapped cheek.
Arthralgia.
Aplastic anaemia.
Prolonged anaemia in immunocompromised.

18

How is parvovirus B19 diagnosed and treated?

Serology IgM/G.
None. No vaccine.

19

When is parvovirus B19 infectious?

Before the onset of rash.

20

Enteroviral infections. Transmission route?
Symptoms?
Worst complication?

Facial oral or contact.
Fever and rashes.
Meningitis.

21

What does respiratory syncytial virus cause?
How is it diagnosed?
What is the Rx?

Bronchiolitis in under 1's.
PCR form aspirate.
O2, manage fever and fluid intake.

22

What does metapneumovirus cause? Dx? Rx?

Respiratory illness (possible pneumonia).
PCR.
Supportive only.

23

What does adenovirus cause? (3).
Dx?
Rx?

Mild URTI, conjunctivitis, diarrhoea (40/41 subtypes).
Respiratory/eye swab PCR.
Cidofovir in immunocompromised.

24

What does parainfluenza cause? (3).
Transmission?
Dx?

Crops, bronchiolitis, URTI.
Droplet.
PCR.

25

What does rhinovirus cause?

The common cold.
Mound in 70% of mild URTI symptoms.

26

Rotavirus: transmission?
Incubation?
Features?
Rx?
Prevention?

Facial oral, occ respiratory.
1-2 days.
D+V.
Rehydration.
Oral live vaccine at 2+3months.

27

How is norovirus spread?
Incidence of vomiting?
course of illness?

Foodbourne, person to person.
>50%.
12-60 hours.

28

How is mumps spread?
Infectivity?
Incubation?

Direct, droplet, fomites.
Days before parotid swelling and after.
2-4 weeks.

29

How does mumps usually progress?

Nonspecific prodrome.
24hrs - earache, tenderness over ipsilateral parotid.
2-3 days - enlarging and painful parotid.
Pyrexia up to 40oC.
Rapid resolution.

30

What are rare manifestations of mumps? (5).

Sialadenitis.
Oophoritis.
Meningitis.
Encephalitis.
Pancreatitis.

31

How is mumps diagnosed?

Clinically.
Raised serum amylase. Normal WCC.

32

What does toxoplasma cause congenitally? (2).

Chorioretinitis, hydrocephaly.

33

What are the most common extra-salivary manifestations of mumps? (2).

Epidiymo-orchitis.
CNS.

Decks in Clinical Pathology Class (66):