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Flashcards in 57 Musculoskeletal 1 Deck (19):
1

What is an arthritidies?

Any inflammation causing pain and stiffness in the joints.

2

Which underlying diseases are often found in osteoarthritis? (2).

Obesity.
Diabetes.

3

Differentiate between the common sites of osteoarthritis in women and men.

Women: kees and hands.
Men: hips.

4

Describe the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis: (3).

Cartilage erosion.
Bony spur formation.
Subchondral cyst formation.

5

What is the molecular pathogenesis of OA? (2).

Chondrocytes release IL-1 initiating matrix breakdown.
Prostaglandin derivatives induce lytic enzyme release - preventing formation.

6

What involvement in fingers is found in OA? (2).

Herberden's nodes.
Bouchard's nodes.

7

Describe the Robbins Pathologic basis of RA: (3).

Synoviocyte hyperplasia produces pannus which erodes cartilage.
Continued erosion penetrates subchondral bone and forms cysts.
Ankylosis: pannus fills joint space.

8

What are the first symptoms of RA? (3).

Malaise.
Fatigue.
Generalised MSK pain.

9

Which genes confer genetic susceptibility to RA? (2).

HLA DR4/DR1.

10

What are the exogenous arthritogens involved in RA? (3).

EBV.
Virus'.
Borrelia.

11

What are the mediators of joint damage in RA? (5)

CD4 T cells.
IL 1, IL 6.
TNF α + β.

12

Name four serognegative arthritides:

Ankylosing spondylitis.
Reiter’s syndrome.
Psoriatic arthritis.
Enteropathic arthritis.

13

What are the clinical features of gout? (4).

Acute + transient arthritis.
Chronic arthritis.
Tophi (uric acid deposition in joints).
Gouty nephropathy.

14

What are the three signs of infective arthritis?

Fever.
Leucocytosis.
Elevated ESR.

15

What are the causes of secondary osteoporosis? (4).

Hyperparathyroidism.
Type 1 diabetes.
Multiple myeloma.
Malnutrition.

16

Which infection leeds to paget's disease of the bone?

Paramyxovirus.

17

Where does Paget's disease of the bone occur most commonly?

Axial and proximal skeleton.

18

What is Osteitis fibrosa cystica?

Loss of bone mineral with osteoporosis.

19

Which changes are seen in renal osteodystrophy? (5).

Increased osteoclastic bone resorption.
Delayed matrix mineralization.
Osteosclerosis.
Growth retardation.
Osteoporosis.

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