33 Urogenital pathology Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology > 33 Urogenital pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 33 Urogenital pathology Deck (19):
1

What is nodular hyperplasia (benign prostatic enlargement)?

Benign overgrowth of the epithelium and fibromuscular tissue in the transition zone and periurethral area.

2

What are the symptoms of benign hyperplasia? (6)

Urgency
Diminished stream size and force
Hesitancy
Increased frequency
Incomplete emptying
Nocturia

3

What are the three pathological changes in nodular hyperplasia? (3)

Nodule formation.
Diffuse enlargement of transition zone and periurethral area.
Nodule enlargement.

4

What is the incidence of carcinoma of the prostate?

Rises over 40 years old.
More in African ancestry.

5

What is the management of prostate carcinoma? (3)

Surgery.
Radiation therapy.
Hormonal manipulation.

6

What are the risk factors for prostate carcinoma? (6)

Age.
African ancestry.
High androgen levels.
Family history.
BRCA2: 20x risk increase.
Increased fat consumption.

7

How is carcinoma of the prostate graded?

Gleason system.

8

Which medical conditions have been related to the development of testicular germ cell tumours? (9)

Previous TCGT in contralateral testicle.
Inguinal hernia.
Impaired spermatogenesis.
Cryptochordism.
Hydrocele.
Disorders of sex development.
Prior testicular biopsy.
Atopy.
Testicular atrophy.

9

Who gets seminomas vs teratomas?

Seminoma: 35-45 year olds.
Teratoma: first and second decades of life.

10

What are the clinical presentations of seminomas and teratomas?

Testicular swelling ± pain.
Rare seminoma: gynecomastia, exophthalmos + infertility.

11

What does epididymoorchitis cause?

Infarcted seminiferous tubules.

12

Who gets idiopathic granulomatous orchitis and how does it present?

Older adults.
Flu-like/UTI presentation. Swollen and painful testis.

13

Which inflammatory condition of the testis may mimic malignancy?

Sarcoidosis.

14

What is myofibroblastic pseudotumor of testis?
Histology?

Benign inflammatory condition of unknown aetiology.
Atypical inflammatory and myofibroblastic reaction with fasciitis-like large cells.

15

What is a sperm granuloma?
What does it result from?

Exuberant foreign body giant cell reaction to extravasated sperm.
Vasectomy/routine autopsy.

16

How does tuberculosis affect the testis?
Reservoir?
Symptoms? (4)

Causes tuberculous orchitis.
Epididymis are reservoir for TB in male genital tract.
Painless swelling with masses, infertility and scrotal fistula.

17

What are the complications of cryptochordism?

Testicular atrophy, carcinoma, infertility.

18

What are the primary causes of testicular failure? (9)

Undescended testis.
Haemachromatosis.
Kleinfelter syndrome.
Mumps.
Orchitis.
Trauma.
CF.
Testicular torsion, varicocele.

19

What are the secondary causes of testicular failure? (3, 4 drugs)

Pituitary failure.
Obesity.
Ageing.
Drugs: glucocorticoids, ketoconazole, chemotherapy, opioids.

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