57 Musculoskeletal 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 57 Musculoskeletal 2 Deck (21):
1

What are sarcomas?
How do they behave?

Malignant tumours of soft tissue.
Lymph involvement uncommon. Spread via blood to liver, lung.

2

Which syndrome is associated with fibromatosis?

Gardner syndrome.

3

What is Carney syndrome associated with? (2).

Myxoma.
Melanotic Schwannoma.

4

Which syndrome is associated with cystic hygroma?

Turner syndrome.

5

How are soft tissue tumours diagnosed? (3).

Ultrasound core biopsy.
Cytogenetics.
Molecular genetics: FISH, PCR.

6

What is an osteochondroma?

A tumour of both bone and cartilage.

7

Where do osteosarcomas commonly occur? (3).
In who?

Distal femur, proximal tibia, or humerus.
Adolescents.

8

What type of tumours are Ewing’s sarcoma and
Giant cell Tumours?

Bone tumours.

9

Which tumours commonly metastasise to the bone? (5).

Thyroid.
Prostate.
Kidney.
Breast.
GI tract.

10

Where do osteochondromas typically occur?

Near epiphyses of long bones.

11

Where and in who do chondromas commonly occur?

Medullary bone near metaphysis.
20-50 y/o. Men.

12

What are the radiographic features of an osteosarcoma? (2).

Medullary destruction.
Aggressive periosteal reaction (sunburst type and conman triangle.

13

What is systemic sclerosis (scleroderma)?
What does it lead to? (5).

Autoimmune fibrosis of subcutaneous tissue.
Raynauds, skin thickening, polyarthritis, dysphagia, hypertension.

14

What is CREST syndrome?

Localised version of scleroderma:
Calcinosis.
Raynaud's phenomenon.
Oesophageal dysfunction.
Sclerodactyly.
Telangiectasia (spider veins).

15

What are the symptoms of polymalgia rheumatica?

Stiffness, weakness, aching and pain in muscles of neck, limb girdles and upper limbs.

16

What is polymyalgia rheumatica associated with? (1).

Giant cell arteritis.

17

What is malignant hyperthermia?

Inherited disease.
General anaesthesia leads to a fast body temperature rise and muscle contraction.

18

What are the signs of malignant hyperthermia? (4).

Bleeding.
Dark brown urine.
Muscle rigidity.
Quick rise to 40.5oC or higher.

19

What is rhabdomyolysis?

Destruction of skeletal muscle and release of contents into blood.

20

What are the causes of rhabdomyolysis? (6).

Trauma.
Cocaine/amphetamines.
Extreme temperature.
Extreme exertion.
Lengthy surgery.
Severe dehydration.

21

What is an important acute complication of rhabdomyolysis?

Acute renal failure.

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