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Flashcards in 250b Endocrine Cancers Deck (15):

thyroid cancer treatment (first aid)

Thyroidectomy is treatment option for thyroid cancers and hyperthyroidism.

Complications of surgery include hoarseness (due to recurrent laryngeal nerve damage), hypocalcemia (due to removal of parathyroid glands), and transection of inferior thyroid artery.


Papillary carcinoma of thyroid

follicular cells

Most common, excellent prognosis.

Empty-appearing nuclei (“Orphan Annie” eyes) psammoma bodies, nuclear grooves.

increased risk with (MAP Kinase) RET and BRAF mutations, childhood irradiation.


follicular carcinoma of the thyroid

follicular cells

Good prognosis, invades thyroid capsule (unlike follicular adenoma), uniform follicles.


medullary carcinoma of the thyroid

parafollicular “C cells”

produces calcitonin, sheets of cells in an amyloid stroma.

Associated with MEN 2A and 2B (RET mutations).


Undifferentiated/anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid

Older patients; invades local structures, very poor prognosis.


Lymphoma of the thyroid

Associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis.


thyroid gland histo

follicular cells (make TG via TPO) surrounding colloid

NIS moves I across BM
Pendrin - moves I into colloid


Thyroid embryology

outpouching of pharynx at foramen cecum-->
remnants are thyroglossal duct and pyramidal lobe

tissue can be found along the migratory pathway


what test shoul dbe used for thyroid nodules?

TSH - people with cancer have a normal level, but people with high TSH have a higher likelihood of cancer


risk factors for thyroid cancer?

family history
radiation at young age
history of high TSH


what cancer does radioiodine not kill? what cancers does it kill?

medullary thyroid cancer
anaplastic cancer

requires NIS (PTC, FTC, HCC)


embryology of PTH glands

upper - brachial arch IV
lower - brachial arch III (w/ thymus)


what makes PTH? other cells? what causes increased secretion of PTH?

chiefs cells

oxyphil cell - unknown fxn

low Ca


hypercalcemia tests

check PTH

high = hyperparathyroidism (1=autonomous PTH, 2=external PTH, 3=continued hyper PTH after treatment)

low = something else (cancer)


presentation of hyperPTH?

renal Stones
painful Bones
abdominal Groans
psychogenic Moans
fatigue Overtones